Dictionary of Geotourism

2020 Edition
| Editors: Anze Chen, Young Ng, Erkuang Zhang, Mingzhong Tian

Clastic Rock

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2538-0_337

Physical disintegration and weathering of parent rocks can result in the formation of clastic materials, which can form clastic rocks after mechanical transportation, deposition, and consolidation. Based on their material sources, clastic rocks can be divided into terrigenous clastic rocks and pyroclastic rocks. Terrigenous clastic rocks can be further divided into three types: conglomerate (breccia), sandstone and siltstone, according to the sizes of the clasts. Using the same criterion, pyroclastic rocks can be divided into agglomerate, volcanic breccia and tuff. Clastic rocks are mainly composed of clastic matter and cement. Clastic matter includes rock fragments and mineral fragments. The former have complex compositions, and the latter mainly consist of quartz, feldspar, mica and a small amount of heavy minerals. Cement mainly includes chemical sediments, such as silicate minerals, sulphate minerals, carbonate minerals, and phosphate minerals, which fill the gaps between the...

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