Reference work entry
This is a sandstone landscape found in arid and windy climate regions, in which Quaternary Middle Pleistocene estuarine and lacustrine facies siltstone, mudstone and conglomerate (mainly muddy conglomerate) are the parent rocks. The landform features, including ridge mounds, fort hills and earth pillars, are formed by short rainstorm scouring and strong wind erosion. Yardang landforms are well developed in Xinjiang and Qinghai Provinces. In the Uygur language, ‘Yardang’ means steep hill. This kind of terrain is widely distributed and typically developed in Lop Nur. From the end of the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the Swedish scientist Sven Anders Hedin and his colleagues conducted expeditions in Lop Nur and used the term ‘Yardang’ to describe this type of landscape; since then, this term has been used universally. This type of landscape was described in the book ‘Han Geography’, which was written before the time of Christ. It states ‘there is no water and grass...
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