Reference work entry
Volcanic eruptions are divided into two broad categories according to the type of magma channel. One is rift eruptions, which are also known as Icelandic volcanic eruptions, during which magma flows to the ground surface along cracks in the Earth’s crust. The other type is central eruptions, during which the magma is ejected from a conduit. The differences in the physical and chemical properties of the magma, such as its viscosity and gas content, determine the mode of the eruption. To signify the characteristics of volcanic eruptions, volcanoes are usually named after specific types, such as Hawaiian, flood basaltic, Strombolian, Vulcanian and Plinian type eruptions (Fig. 8).
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