Vesuvius Volcano Landscape
Reference work entry
Vesuvius is an active volcano in Europe and is located 11 km east of Naples in Italy. The world’s largest volcanic observatory was established here. In 63 A.D., Vesuvius experienced a major earthquake. On August 24, 79 A.D., the volcano erupted. Two cities, Herculaneum and Pompeii, were completely buried under volcanic ash and pumice stone. In 1713, a well was drilled in Herculaneum, which encountered an amphitheatre. Since then, many statues and plaques with inscriptions of the 63 A.D. earthquake have been unearthed. Pompeii is buried relatively shallowly, and nearly the entire city has been excavated. The city wall is 4.8 km long. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, Vesuvius has erupted several times; the 1994 eruption buried the ruins of this ancient city under 0.3 m of volcanic ash (Fig. 5).
© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020