Reference work entry
Cave animals are animals that inhabit caves. They mainly include invertebrates, such as turbellaria, gastropods, diplopods, arachnids, pseudoscorpionida, opiliones and crustaceans; insects, such as collembola, coleoptera and orthoptera; and vertebrates, such as bats, fish, salamanders and frogs. In the unique cave environment, cave animals are characterised by a lack of pigmentation, eye degeneration, lengthened tentacles and slow metabolism. According to the life-history characteristics of cave animals, most scientists categorise them into three types: (1) Trogloxenes, which are cave animals that do not complete their life cycle in caves but use them for shelter in winters for refuge. Examples are moths, mosquitoes and raccoons, which live in cave areas with less light. (2) Troglophiles, which are cave-dwelling animals that may complete their life cycle in a cave but can also survive in above-ground habitats. Examples are earthworms and certain crustaceans that maintain a constant...
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