Dictionary of Geotourism

2020 Edition
| Editors: Anze Chen, Young Ng, Erkuang Zhang, Mingzhong Tian

Sandstone

Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2538-0_2140

Sandstone is a clastic rock in which grains ranging in size from 0.0625 to 2 mm and accounts for more than 50% of the clastic material. Sandstone has a stable structure, and it is usually pale brown or red. It is mainly composed of clastic matters and filling materials. The clastic matter is from land-based sources, and it mainly consists of quartz and feldspar, which account for more than 50%, followed by lithic fragments, muscovite, chlorite and heavy minerals. The filling material includes cement and clastic matrix, the composition and structure of which reflect the physical and chemical conditions and the geologic environment during the rock-forming process. Sandstone provides important information about the geologic and historical period of its formation. The clastic matter is useful for determining the provenance, the directional structures indicate the flow direction, and the geometry of the sand body reflects the sedimentary environment. Based on the depositional environment,...

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