Nihewan Quaternary Section in Zhangjiakou
Reference work entry
This geological section is located in the rock outcrops along both sides of the Sanggan River and Huliu River in northwestern Hebei Province. It was named the ‘Nihowan Bed’ by G.B. Barbour in 1924. The rock layers contain abundant mammal fossils called the Nihewan fauna. The Nihewan Bed (Formation) is composed of fluvio-lacustrine gravels and sandy clay layers. Its lower part is mostly grey or greyish green, while the upper part is mainly greyish yellow and is covered with loess. The layer below this bed contains the Pliocene ‘Hipparion laterite’. Sixty fossils of mammal species were discovered in the Nihewan Formation, including large mammals, such as long-nosed three-toed horses (Proboscidipparion), sabre-toothed tigers (Smilodon), Sanmen horses (Equus sanmeniensis), Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor), ancient bison, woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) and Chinese raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes), and small mammals, such as entomophages (insectivores), rabbits (Lagomorpha) and rodents...
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