The concept of landscape ecology was proposed by the German geographer Carl Troll (1899–1975). It considers the entire landscape as an object and uses the principles of ecosystems and systematic methods to study the landscape’s structure, function, dynamic changes and associated interaction mechanisms. It also studies the beautification of landscape patterns, structural optimization, rational use and protection. It is an emerging cross-disciplinary research area in ecology and geography. It involves studies of the transmission and exchanges of material, energy, information and value in landscapes, the associated biological and non-biological components and their interactions with humans.