Karst Spring Landscape
Reference work entry
This is the natural outflow of underground karst water and is the phenomenon of groundwater flowing from the spot where the aquifer or water channel intersects the ground surface. A karst spring signifies the characteristics of the water volume, water quality and movement of the karst groundwater. According to their properties, karst springs have various classifications: (1) rising springs and descending springs, which refer to the spring’s hydrodynamic properties; (2) constant flow springs, intermittent springs or seasonal springs, erratic springs or sinkhole springs, overflow springs and periodic springs, which refer to the spring’s dynamics; (3) dissolution fissure springs, karst cave springs, rising shaft springs and dissolved pool springs, which refer to the springhead shape; (4) riverbed springs, valley edge springs, coastal springs, seabed springs, fault springs and suspension springs; and (5) external source springs and internal source springs, which refer to the spring’s...
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