Joggins Fossil Cliffs, Canada
This site is located on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada, and has a core protection area of 6.8 km2. The rich Carboniferous (350 to 290 million years ago) fossil species have led the site to be hailed by the palaeontology community as the ‘Galapagos of the Carboniferous’. The rock specimens at the site are regarded as textbooks of Earth history. The Pennsylvanian strata (318 to 303 million years ago) contain the world’s thickest and most abundant fossil records from that time period. The 14.7-km-long coastal cliffs, rocky mesas, and low-lying beaches have three types of ecosystems: estuarine bay, floodplain rainforest and floodplain freshwater lake ecosystems. Three kinds of palaeoecological remains have been unearthed from 96 genera and 148 different fossil specimens, and there are also 20 fossil footprints.