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Flavonoid C-Glycosides in Diets

  • F. BucarEmail author
  • J. B. Xiao
  • S. Ochensberger
Living reference work entry
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Flavonoids are one of the most widely occurring secondary plant constituents and are rich in vegetable and fruit diets as well as beverages of plant origin. In flavonoid glycosides, the sugars can either be linked to the aglycone via an ether bond (O-glycosides) or via a C–C- bond resulting in flavonoid C-glycosides. Their occurrence in food plants, their role in bioactivity of food, and their catabolism are covered in this chapter. The major class of C-glycosylflavonoids in food plants is represented by flavones, in addition dihydrochalcones and C-glycosylisoflavones can be found. Citrus fruits can be considered as a major source of C-glycosylflavones, whereas in most cases relatively low amounts have been found in cereals. A rich source of C-glycosylated dihydrochalcones are tomatoes, as well as rooibos and honeybush herbal teas, and the most common C-glycosylisoflavone puerarin is mainly consumed via kudzu roots. Due to their higher chemical stability in terms of hydrolysis during cooking and also after ingestion, they can be considered as a specific group within flavonoids. Their metabolic fate is clearly different from O-glycosidic flavonoids with absorption of intact glycosides, followed by phase II metabolization. However, also deglycosylation by gut microbiota and degradation of aglycones to compounds like (hydroxy)phenylpropionic acids have been recognized. Only limited data on the actual daily intake of C-glycosylflavonoids including information on content in fresh and processed food are available.

Keywords

C-Glycosylflavonoids Flavonoid C-glycosides Citrus fruit flavonoids Cereal flavonoids Flavonoid metabolisms Flavonoid bioactivities Flavones Dihydrochalcones Isoflavonoids 

Abbreviations

ABTS

2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt

CGF

C-glycosylflavonoids

CGT

C-glycosyltransferase

COX

Cyclooxygenase

CYP

Cytochrome P450 enzymes

DPPH

2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

ESI

Electrospray ionization

IC50

Half maximal inhibitory concentration

IL

Interleukin

MCF

Human breast cancer cell line

MIC

Minimal inhibitory concentration

mRNA

Messenger RNA

OGF

O-glycosylflavonoids

PGE-2

Prostaglandin E2

P-gp

P-glycoprotein

PXR

Pregnane-X- receptor

RAW

Mouse macrophage cell line

TE

Trolox equivalents

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor α

Vero

African green monkey kidney cells

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of PharmacognosyUniversity of GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical SciencesUniversity of MacauTaipaMacao

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