Encyclopedia of Teacher Education

Living Edition
| Editors: Michael A. Peters

Outdoor and Environmental Education: Nature and Wellbeing

  • Denise MittenEmail author
  • Eric Brymer
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1179-6_365-1

The more clearly we can focus our attention on the wonders and realities of the universe about us, the less taste we shall have for destruction. Rachel Carson

Nature Is Imperative for Human Wellbeing

Since the beginning of time, nature has been imperative for human wellbeing. Early humans knew this and lived in relation with nature, as part of nature, with no distinction or conception of nature as different or separate from humanity. Humans were nature and nature was us. While a predominantly Western tendency assumes humans as separate and outside of natural ecosystems, evidence indicates that early humans were interwoven with nature, coevolving with the other flora and fauna in a mutualistic manner. Mutualistic relationships, connecting all beings, including humans to natural elements, prompted the web of life theory that all life is one living system some call Gaia. The integration of these two conflicting concepts – separate and symbiotic – has led to humans having a complex and...

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References

  1. Brymer, E. Freeman, E., & Richardson, M. (2019). One health: The wellbeing impacts of human-nature relationships. Frontiers. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01611/full
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  3. Mitten, D., Cheung, L., Yan, W., & Withrow-Clark, R. (2017). Adventure education. In A. Russ & M. Krasny (Eds.), Urban environmental education review. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Mitten, D., Overholt, J. R., Haynes, F. I., D’Amore, C. C., & Ady, J. C. (2018). Hiking a low-cost, accessible intervention to promote health benefits. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 12(4), 302–310. 1559827616658229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Prescott CollegePrescottUSA
  2. 2.Australian College of Applied PsychologyBrisbaneAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • John Quay
    • 1
  • Tonia Gray
    • 2
  • Peter Higgins
  1. 1.Melbourne Graduate School of EducationThe University of MelbourneUniversity of MelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Educational Research, School of EducationWestern Sydney UniversityPenrithAustralia