Advertisement

Shared Citizenship and Sovereignty: The Case of the Cook Islands’ and Niue’s Relationship with New Zealand

  • Zbigniew DumieńskiEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The world in the twenty-first century contains many distinct small polities of varying degree of self-governance, ranging from fully sovereign states to mere autonomies or special administrative regions. Their existence raises the question of the meaning of sovereignty, statehood, and politico-economic viability in the face of extreme geographic and demographic challenges. This question is of particular relevance in the context of one group of diminutive states that have delegated some of the key attributes of their sovereignty to larger states in order to overcome some of the limitations imposed upon them by geography or demographics. This chapter examines two such political units: the Cook Islands and Niue. While formally independent, they have functioned in free association with New Zealand. In addition to receiving significant amounts of financial assistance, as well as delegating authority in such areas as monetary policy or defense to their former metropolitan power, the Cook Islanders and Niueans have remained New Zealand citizens, and their territories have remained treated as part of New Zealand for the purpose of obtaining its citizenship. The existence of such arrangements has been a source of confusion. In particular, it has raised the question of the compatibility of free association and shared citizenship with sovereign statehood. This chapter addresses this question and argues that despite their miniscule size and close association with New Zealand, both the Cook Islands and Niue can and should be seen as sovereign states.

Keywords

Microstates Small states Sovereignty Shared citizenship Free association Modern protected states 

References

  1. AJPA (1994) Symposium on the governance of small and Island States. Asian J Public Adm 16(1)Google Scholar
  2. Alesina A (2003) The size of countries: does it matter? J Eur Econ Assoc 1(2–3):301–316.  https://doi.org/10.1162/154247603322390946. (January 19, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexandrowicz CH (1973) The European-African confrontation: a study in treaty making. Sijthoff, Leiden. http://www.amazon.com/The-European-African-confrontation-treaty-making/dp/9028603034. (November 22, 2012)Google Scholar
  4. Amstrup N (1976) The perennial problem of small states: a survey of research efforts. Coop Confl 11(2):163–182.  https://doi.org/10.1177/001083677601100202. (June 20, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews J (2001) Cook Islands put NZ citizenship first. New Zealand Herald, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  6. Armstrong HW, Read R (1995) Western European micro-states and EU autonomous regions: the advantages of size and sovereignty. World Dev 23(I):1229–1245. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0305750X9500040J. (November 12, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armstrong HW, Read R (1998) Trade and growth in small states: the impact of global trade liberalisation. World Econ 21(4):563–585.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9701.00148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asian Development Bank (2008) Cook Islands 2008 social and economic report. Asian Development Bank, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  9. Baldacchino G (2006) Small islands versus big cities: lessons in the political economy of regional development from the world’s small islands. J Technol Transf 31:91–100. http://www.springerlink.com/index/y3742p94378p32u3.pdf. (September 4, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barker JC (2000) Hurricanes and socio-economic development on Niue Island. Asia Pac Viewp 41(2):191–205.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8373.00115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bartmann B (2012) From the wings to the footlights: the international relations of Europe’s smallest states. Commonw Comp Polit (March 2013):37–41. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14662043.2012.729734. (March 10, 2013)
  12. Baty T (1921) Protectorates and Mandates. Br Yearb Int Law 1. http://heinonlinebackup.com/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/byrint2&section=14. (November 20, 2012)
  13. Benedict B (1967) Problem of smaller territories. University of London, Athlone Press, London. http://books.google.com/books?id=NA7QPgAACAAJ&pgis=1. (May 24, 2012)Google Scholar
  14. Berridge GR, Lloyd L (2012) The Palgrave Macmillan dictionary of diplomacy (Google EBook). Palgrave Macmillan. http://books.google.com/books?id=jvarq4iy5MoC&pgis=1. (November 22, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bertram G (1987) The political economy of decolonisation and nationhood in small pacific societies. In: Hooper A et al (eds) Class and culture in the Pacific. Centre for Pacific Studies, University of Auckland and Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South PacificGoogle Scholar
  16. Bertram G, Watters R (1984) New Zealand and its small island neighbours: a review of New Zealand Policy toward the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau, Kiribati and Tuvalu. Institute of Policy Studies, Working Paper (October). http://ips.ac.nz/publications/files/3aa5ea29775.pdf. (November 17, 2012)
  17. Blocker J, Gulati M (2017) Forced secessions. Law Contemp Probl 220 pp. 215–247Google Scholar
  18. Bray M, Fergus H (1986) The implications of size for educational development in small countries: Montserrat, a Caribbean case study. Compare: 37–41. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0305792860160106. (February 17, 2013)
  19. Cardno (2016) An assessment of the costs and benefits of mining deep-sea minerals in the Pacific Island Region: deep-sea mining cost-benefit analysis/Pacific Community. SPC Tech, SuvaGoogle Scholar
  20. Catudal HM (1975) The plight of the Lilliputians: an analysis of five European microstates. Geoforum 6:187–204. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0016718575900238. (November 22, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clark AL et al (1995) Economic and developmental potential of manganese nodules within the Cook Islands Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). East-West Center, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  22. Clarke T (1979) The rules of the game. In: Crocombe R (ed) Cook islands politics: the inside story. Polynesian Press, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  23. Connell J (2007) ‘The best island on the globe’: constantly constructing tourism on Niue. Aust Geogr 38(1):1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00049180601175832. (November 17, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cook Islands Government (2015) Cook Islands: National infrastructure investment plan. Cook Islands Government, RarotongaGoogle Scholar
  25. Cook Islands Parliament (2004) Cook Islands constitution. http://www.parliament.gov.ck/Constitution.pdf
  26. Cooks Citizenship Shouldn’t Be Part of UN Membership Discussion (2015) Radio New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  27. Cooks to Take More Direct Approach to Seabed Mining (2016) Radio New Zealand. http://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/297239/cooks-to-take-more-direct-approach-to-seabed-mining. (May 6, 2017)
  28. Crawford JR (2007) The creation of states in international law. Oxford University Press, Oxford. http://www.amazon.com/The-Creation-States-International-Law/dp/0199228426. (November 19, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crocombe R (1978) Nepotism in the cook islands. J Sociol 14(2):166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crocombe, Ron. 1979. Forces shaping the arena. Cook Islands politics: the inside story. Ron Crocombe. Auckland: Polynesian PressGoogle Scholar
  31. Crocombe R, Tongia M, Araitia T (2008) Absentee landowners in the Cook Islands: consequences of change to tradition. Making Land Work 2:153–171. http://www.sprep.org/att/IRC/eCOPIES/Pacific_Region/251.pdf#page=158. (September 23, 2013)Google Scholar
  32. Dommen E (1985) States, microstates and islands. Routledge Kegan & Paul, London. http://www.amazon.com/States-Microstates-Islands-Edward-Dommen/dp/0709908628. (August 9, 2012)Google Scholar
  33. Dumienski Z (2014) Microstates as modern protected states: towards a new definition of micro-statehood. Center for Small States Studies, ReykjavikGoogle Scholar
  34. Duursma JC (1996) Fragmentation and the international relations of micro-states: self-determination and statehood. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=CgVDprXjkIYC&pgis=1. (November 22, 2012)Google Scholar
  35. Duval DT, Winchester N (2011) Cost sharing in air-service provision. J Air Law Commer 76:77–96Google Scholar
  36. East MA (1973) Size and foreign policy behavior: a test of two models. World Polit: Q J Int 25(4):556–576. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/2009952. (March 11, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Eccardt TM (2005) Secrets of the seven smallest states of Europe: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxemborg, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City. Hippocrene Books, New York. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=gQFzO_v_uwwC&pgis=1. (November 22, 2012)Google Scholar
  38. Fairbairn T’o IJ, Pearson JM (1987) Entrepreneurship in the Cook Islands. East-West Center, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  39. Frame A (1987) The external affairs and defence of the Cook Islands – the ‘Riddiford Clause’ considered. Vic Univ Wellingt Law Rev 17:141–151Google Scholar
  40. Gillard CA (2012) 1994 sovereignty, self-determination and the South-West Pacific: a comparison of the status of Pacific Island Territorial Entities in International Law. University of Waikato. http://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz/handle/10289/7589. (July 8, 2014)
  41. Gilson RP (1955) The background of New Zealand’s early land policy in Rarotonga. J Polynesian Soc 64(3):267–280Google Scholar
  42. Gilson RP (1980) In: Crocombe R (ed) The Cook Islands 1820–1950. Victoria University Press, Wellington. http://books.google.co.ck/books/about/The_Cook_Islands_1820_1950.html?id=CMxwbTquFlgC&pgis=1. (October 7, 2013)Google Scholar
  43. Goetschel L (1998) Small states inside and outside the European Union interests and policies. Springer, New York. http://www.amazon.com/States-Outside-European-Interests-Policies/dp/0792382803. (March 11, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Government of Niue (2017) Parliament. http://www.gov.nu/wb/pages/parliament.php
  45. Grydehøj A (2011) Making the most of smallness: economic policy in microstates and sub-national island jurisdictions. Space Polity.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13562576.2011.692578. (November 12, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gunter MM (1974) Liechtenstein and the league of nations: a precedent for the united nation’s ministate problem? Am J Int Law 68(3):496–501. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/2200519. (November 29, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harden S (1985) Small is dangerous: micro states in a macro world. Palgrave Macmillan, London. http://www.amazon.com/Small-Is-Dangerous-Micro-States/dp/0312729812. (July 11, 2012)Google Scholar
  48. Hass MA (2004) Geopolitics and nations: why Liechtensteiners exist. SSRN Electron J. 1–35. http://www.ssrn.com/abstract=958866
  49. Hein JR et al (2015) Critical metals in manganese nodules from the Cook Islands EEZ, abundances and distributions. Ore Geol Rev 68:97–116.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2014.12.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Herr RA (1988) Microstate sovereignty in the South Pacific: is small practical? Contemp Southeast Asia 10(2):182–196. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/25798002. (May 7, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hey JAK (2003) Small states in world politics: explaining foreign policy behavior. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=WP1_-k2RGoMC&pgis=1. (March 11, 2013)Google Scholar
  52. Hintjens HM, Newitt MDD (1992) The political economy of small tropical islands: the importance of being small. University of Exeter Press, Exeter. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=V3rF_DgXtC0C&pgis=1. (April 17, 2012)Google Scholar
  53. Hobsbawm E (1992) Nations and nationalism since 1780: programme, myth, reality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. http://books.google.com/books?id=OHz70fY8t2UC&pgis=1. (November 19, 2012)Google Scholar
  54. Hobsbawm E (1996) The age of extremes: a history of the world, 1914–1991. Vintage, New York. http://www.amazon.com/The-Age-Extremes-History-1914-1991/dp/0679730052. (May 23, 2012)Google Scholar
  55. Hoffmann-Dumieński K (2016) Professional development across the islands of the South Pacific a qualitative study of blended learning facilitators in the Cook Islands. J Open Flex Dist Learn 22:66–78Google Scholar
  56. Ingram IP (2004) The need to review land use in the cook islands and the potential for community visioning:1–5Google Scholar
  57. Ingram T, Uhrle M (2004) Transparency international country study report: Cook Islands 2004. Transparency International Australia, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  58. Is Monaco Doomed? Other Nations Want It (1910) The New York TimesGoogle Scholar
  59. James A (1986) Sovereign statehood: the basis of international society. Allen & Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  60. Johnston WR (1973) Sovereignty and protection: a study of British jurisdictional imperialism in the late nineteenth century. Published for the Duke University Commonwealth-Studies Center [by] Duke University Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=ShiOAAAAMAAJ&pgis=1. (November 22, 2012)
  61. Joint Centenary Declaration of the Principles of the Relationship between the Cook Islands and New Zealand (2001)Google Scholar
  62. Jonassen JTM (1996) Disappearing islands?: management of microstate foreign affairs and the potential impact of alternative general futures: the case of the Cook Islands. University of Hawaii. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Disappearing+islands+?+Management+of+microstate+foreign+affairs+and+the+Potential+Impact+of+Alternative+General+Fututres:+the+Case+of+the+Cook+Islands#0. (November 12, 2012)
  63. Jonassen JTM (2011) Cook islands. In: Levine S (ed) Pacific ways: government and politics in the Pacific Islands. Victoria University Press, Wellington. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/paaf/paaf/2011/00000084/00000002/art00056Google Scholar
  64. Jonassen JTM (2013) Cook islands political reform: toward 2055. In: Crowl L, Crocombe MT, Dixon R (eds) Ron Crocombe: E Toa! Pacific writings to celebrate his life and work. University of South Pacific Press, SuvaGoogle Scholar
  65. Katzenstein PJ (1985) Small states in world markets: industrial policy in Europe (Cornell studies in political economy). Cornell University Press, Ithaca. http://www.amazon.com/Small-States-World-Markets-Industrial/dp/0801493269. (February 5, 2013)Google Scholar
  66. Keohane RO (1969) Lilliputians’ dilemmas: small states in international politics. Int Organ 23(02):291–310. http://www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S002081830003160X. (June 27, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Maass M (2009) The elusive definition of the small state. Int Polit 46(1):65–83. http://www.palgrave-journals.com/doifinder/10.1057/ip.2008.37. (March 4, 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Marsters E (2017) Rethinking Cook Islands Free Association Agreement with NZ, part 2. Impolitikal. https://impolitikal.com/2017/04/06/rethinking-the-cook-islands-free-association-agreement-with-nz-part-2/
  69. McKinnon M (2013) Interdependence and foreign policy: New Zealand in the world since 1935. Auckland University Press, Auckland. https://books.google.co.nz/books?id=0tZaAwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:%22Malcolm+McKinnon%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2n6WiwKrVAhXCtpQKHSWoDvkQ6AEINTAD#v=onepage&q=cookislands&f=false. (July 28, 2017)Google Scholar
  70. McNicoll IJ (1989) Government policies toward the development of the Chatham Islands: a comparison with the Niue experienceGoogle Scholar
  71. Mehmet O, Tahiroglu M (2002) Growth and equity in microstates: does size matter in development? Int J Soc Econ 29(1/2):152–162. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/03068290210413047. (March 4, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Milne S (1992) Tourism development in Niue. Ann Tour Res 1988(Milne 1988):565–569. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:Tourism+Development+in+Niue#0. (May 27, 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Milne D (2000) Ten lessons for economic development in small jurisdictions: the European perspective. http://www.upei.ca/iis/rep_dm_1. (April 25, 2012)
  74. Ministry of Finance and Economic Management (2013) Cook Islands demographic profile 2006–2011. Cook Islands Government, RarotongaGoogle Scholar
  75. Mohamed AN (2002) The diplomacy of micro-states. Int Relat. http://www.nbiz.nl/publications/2002/20020100_cli_paper_dip_issue78.pdf. (May 17, 2012)
  76. Neate R (2013) Seabed mining could earn Cook Islands ‘Tens of Billions of Dollars’. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/aug/05/seabed-mining-cook-islands-billions. (May 6, 2017)
  77. Neemia UF (1995) Smallness, Islandness and foreign policy behaviour: aspects of island microstates foreign policy behaviour with special reference to Cook Islands and Kiribati. University of Wollongong. http://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/1439/. (March 8, 2013)
  78. Neumann IB, Gstöhl S (2004) Lilliputians in Gulliver’s world? Small states in international relations. University of Iceland, ReykjavikGoogle Scholar
  79. New Zealand Parliament (1964) Cook islands constitution act. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1964/0069/latest/whole.html
  80. New Zealand Parliament (1974) Niue Constitution Act. New Zealand Parliament, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  81. Orlow D (1995) Of nations small: the small state in international law. Temp Int Comp Law J 1. http://heinonlinebackup.com/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/tclj9&section=10. (November 18, 2012)
  82. Parrish W (1990) The security of very small states. University of Maryland, College ParkGoogle Scholar
  83. Parry C (1960) Nationality and citizenship laws of the commonwealth and the republic of Ireland. Stevens & Sons. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Nationality-Citizenship-Commonwealth-Republic-Ireland/dp/0420372601. (November 22, 2012)
  84. Parsons R (1968) Self-determination and political development in Niue. J Polynesian Soc 77(3):242–262. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:SELF-DETERMINATION+AND+POLITICAL+DEVELOPMENT+IN+NIUE#1. (June 3, 2014)Google Scholar
  85. Plischke E (1977) Microstates in world affairs: policy problems and options (studies in foreign policy). AEI Press. http://www.amazon.com/Microstates-World-Affairs-Problems-Options/dp/0844732419. (July 11, 2012)
  86. Pointer M (2015) Niue 1774–1974: 200 years of contact and change. Otago University Press, DunedinGoogle Scholar
  87. Quentin-Baxter A (1999) Niue’s relationship of free association with New Zealand. Victoria Univ Wellingt Law Rev 30:589–598Google Scholar
  88. Quentin-Baxter A (2000) The problems of islands. Vic Univ Wellingt Law Rev 31:429Google Scholar
  89. Quentin-Baxter A (2009) The New Zealand model of free association: what does it mean for New Zealand? Victoria Univ Wellingt Law Rev 39:607–634Google Scholar
  90. Reid GL (1975) Impact of very small size on the international behaviour of microstates (international studies). Sage, London. http://www.amazon.com/Impact-International-Behaviour-Microstates-Studies/dp/0803904061. (March 24, 2013)Google Scholar
  91. Reti MJ (2008) An assessment of the impact of climate an assessment of the impact of climate change on agriculture and food security in the Pacific: a case study in the Cook Islands. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  92. Ross A (1964) New Zealand aspirations in the pacific in the nineteenth century. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  93. Samoglou E (2014) Seabed mining: need to protect environment. Cook Islands News. http://www.cookislandsnews.com/item/46770-seabed-mining-need-to-protect-environment/46770-seabed-mining-need-to-protect-environment. (May 6, 2017)
  94. Sawyer C (2013) The loss of birthright citizenship in New Zealand. Vic Univ Wellingt Law Rev 44:653–674Google Scholar
  95. Schumacher EF (1973) 9 nature methods small is beautiful. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24687246
  96. Schwebel SM (1973) Mini-states and a more effective United Nations. Am J Int Law 67(1):108–116. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/2199098. (November 13, 2012)Google Scholar
  97. Scott D (1991) Years of the pooh-bah: a Cook Islands history. CITC, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  98. Sieber M (1983) Dimensions of small states dependence: the case of Switzerland. In: Small states in Europe and dependence. Austrian Institute for International Affairs, Vienna, pp 107–129Google Scholar
  99. Simpson AW (2007) A theory of disfunctionality: the European micro-states as disfunctional states in the international system. University of Aberdeen. http://gradworks.umi.com/U2/33/U233251.html. (July 28, 2014)
  100. Smith SE (2010) Uncharted waters: has the Cook Islands become eligible for membership in the United Nations. NZJPIL 1. http://heinonlinebackup.com/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/nzjpubinl8&section=16. (November 20, 2012)
  101. Smylie C (2014) The devil in the deep blue sea. NZ Listener. http://www.noted.co.nz/archive/listener-nz-2014/the-devil-in-the-deep-blue-sea/. (May 6, 2017)
  102. Srinivasan TN (1986) The costs and benefits of being a small, remote, island, landlocked, or Ministate economy. World Bank Res Obs 1(2):205–218. http://wbro.oxfordjournals.org/content/1/2/205.short. (July 19, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Stone DJ (1965) Self-determination in the Cook Islands: a reply. J Polynesian Soc 74(3). http://www.jstor.org/stable/20704261
  104. Stone DJ (1971) Self-rule in the Cook Islands: the government and politics of a new micro-state. Australian National University, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  105. Strickland M (1979) Self-government and the new colonialism. In: Crocombe R (ed) Cook Islands politics: the inside story. Polynesian Press, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  106. Stringer K (2006) An economic diagnosis of Palau through the Liechtenstein lens. East West Centre working papers. http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/3281/IGSCwp026.pdf?sequence=1. (April 10, 2012)
  107. Sundhaussen U (2003) Peasants and the process of building democratic polities: lessons from San Marino. Aust J Polit Hist 49(2):211–221.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8497.00305/abstract. (November 22, 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sutton P (2011) The concept of small states in the international political economy. Round Table 100(413):141–153. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00358533.2011.565625. (March 25, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Syme-Buchanan F (2015) Lagoon national disaster! Cook Islands News. http://www.cookislandsnews.com/national/local/item/55320-lagoon-national-disaster/55320-lagoon-national-disaster. (May 7, 2017)
  110. Tafatu O, Tukuitoga IJ (1982) Developments to annexation. In: Niue: a history of the island. Institute of Pacific Studies of the University of the South Pacific, SuvaGoogle Scholar
  111. Talagi M (2013) Politics, propositions and perspectives: Niue and nationhood. Solomua Press, NiueGoogle Scholar
  112. Tõnurist P (2010) What is a ‘Small State’ in a globalizing economy? Halduskultuur Adm Cult 11(1):8–29Google Scholar
  113. Treaty between the United States of America and the Cook Islands on Friendship and Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary between the United States of America and the Cook Islands (1980)Google Scholar
  114. Turner W (2007) History of philosophy (3 vols. set). Global Vision Publishing Ho. http://books.google.com/books?id=vmyN0bMTth8C&pgis=1. (March 20, 2013)
  115. United Nations (1945) Charter of the United NationsGoogle Scholar
  116. Veenendaal W (2014) A big prince in a tiny realm: smallness, monarchy, and political legitimacy in the principality of Liechtenstein. Swiss Polit Sci Rev: n/a-n/a. http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/spsr.12138. (November 9, 2014)
  117. Veenendaal W (2015) Politics and democracy in microstates. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. Warrington E (1994) Lilliputs revisited. Asian J Public Adm 16(1):1–13Google Scholar
  119. Webb P (2016) Cook Islands. In: Levine S (ed) Pacific ways: government and politics in the Pacific Islands. Victoria University Press, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  120. Whimp G (2008) Writing the colony: Walter Edward gudgeon in the Cook Islands, 1898 to 1909. Victoria University of Wellington, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  121. Wilson SD (1969) Cook islands development 1945–65. In: Ross A (ed) New Zealand’s record in the Pacific Islands in the twentieth century. Longman Paul Limited, AucklandGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Auckland University of TechnologyAucklandNew Zealand

Section editors and affiliations

  • Joseph Rudolph
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceTowson UniversityTowsonUSA

Personalised recommendations