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Sinobambusa Makino ex Nakai

  • Jun Yi Shi
  • Yu Xiao ZhangEmail author
  • De Qun Zhou
  • Li Sha Ma
  • Jun Yao
Living reference work entry
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

Shrubby to arborescent bamboos. Rhizomes monopodium or amphipodium. Culms diffuse or diffuse mixed with caespitose, erect; internodes terete, flat at the base of the branching side or occasionally grooved; sheath-nodes prominent, as tall as culm-nodes or lower than culm-nodes on nodes with branches. Branches 3, sometimes 5–7, nearly equal in size. Culm-sheaths deciduous, thickly papery to leathery, densely setose abaxially at the base; auricles developed or absent; ligules arched, entire; blades lanceolate, deciduous. Leaves 3–9 per branchlet; blades lanceolate, transverse veins conspicuous. Flowering branches with leaves or leafless, racemose or paniculate; pseudospikelet usually solitary, lateral pseudospikelets subtended by 1 prophyll; bracts 2 to several, gradually larger apically, the upper 1–2 bracts with buds, buds germinating into secondary pseudospikelets; pseudospikelets long, florets more than 50, rachilla disarticulated when mature; glumes usually absent, sometimes 1; lemma with ribs and transverse veins, apex acute, with a cusp; palea 2-keeled, apex blunt, keels and apex ciliate; lodicules (2) 3, veins many, margins ciliate; stamens 3, sometimes 2 or 4, filaments free; style 1, sometimes 2 or 3, stigmas 2 or 3, plumose. New shoots spring to early summer.

Shrubby to arborescent bamboos. Rhizomes monopodium or amphipodium. Culms diffuse or diffuse mixed with caespitose, erect; internodes terete, flat at the base of the branching side or occasionally grooved; sheath scars prominent, as tall as nodes or lower than nodes on nodes with branches. Branches 3, sometimes 5–7, nearly equal in size. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths thickly papery to leathery, densely setose abaxially at the base; auricles developed or absent; ligules arched, entire; blades lanceolate, deciduous. Foliage leaves 3–9 per branchlet; blades lanceolate, transverse veins conspicuous. Flowering branches with leaves or leafless, racemose or paniculate; pseudospikelet usually solitary, lateral pseudospikelets subtended by 1 prophyll; bracts 2 to several, gradually larger apically, the upper 1–2 bracts with buds, buds germinating into secondary pseudospikelets; pseudospikelets long, florets more than 50, rachilla disarticulated when mature; glumes usually absent, sometimes 1; lemma with ribs and transverse veins, apex acute, with a cusp; palea 2-keeled, apex blunt, keels and apex ciliate; lodicules (2) 3, veins many, margins ciliate; stamens 3, sometimes 2 or 4, filaments free; style 1, sometimes 2 or 3, stigmas 2 or 3, plumose. New shoots spring to early summer.

Sixteen species, three varieties, and one form in China. Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan. Vietnam (Keng and Wang 1996; Li et al. 2006; Shi et al. 2012; Yi et al. 2008, 2017).

Key to Species

1.

Culm leaf sheaths nearly oblong, the apex a little narrowed, glabrous or with setae abaxially, setae not stinging; internodes without small pigskin-like pits below nodes

2

Culm leaf sheaths nearly triangular, the apex narrow, with stinging setae abaxially; internodes with small pigskin-like pits below nodes, some species without pits

10

2.

Culm leaf auricles absent or tiny

3

Culm leaf auricles developed, even auricles of branch sheaths conspicuous

5

3.

Culm leaf blades erect

4

Culm leaf blades reflexed; young culms occasionally sparsely setose; foliage leaves 5-7 per branchlet, up to 22 cm long, 2.6 cm wide; initially pubescent abaxially

S. rubroligula McClure

4.

Internodes glabrous; ligules arched; foliage leaves 2–4 per branchlet, blades 5–8 cm long, 7–10 mm wide, glabrous

S. incana T. H. Wen

Internodes with white pubescence; ligules protruding like triangle centrally; foliage leaves 5 per branchlet, pubescent abaxially

S. acutiligulata W. T. Lin

5.

Young culms and culm leaf sheaths with thick white powder; culm leaf blades crinkled

S. farinosa (McClure) T. H. Wen

Young culms without white powder or with thin white powder; culm leaf blades flat

6

6.

Sheath scars glabrous; culm leaf auricles nearly oblong

S. glabrata W. T. Lin et Z. J. Feng

Sheath scars setose initially

7

7.

Culm leaf auricles kidney-shaped to elliptic

S. nephroaurita C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao

Culm leaf auricles elliptic to falcate or inconspicuous

8

8.

Culm leaf auricles erect, with short setae, culm leaf sheaths glabrous with white powder

S. seminuda T. H. Wen

Culm leaf auricles spreading, with thick and long setae, culm leaf sheaths with setae abaxially

9

9.

Young culms glabrous, the lower part of the branching side flat; culm leaf sheaths with short setae at the abaxial base, ligules 4 mm tall; pseudospikelets glabrous; style very short, stigmas 3

S. tootsik (Makino) Makino

Young culms pubescent, the lower part of the branching side flat and grooved; culm leaf sheaths with long pubescence at the abaxial base, ligules short; pseudospikelets pubescent or sometimes glabrous; style long, stigmas 2

S. intermedia McClure

10.

Internodes without pigskin-like pits below nodes, but with conspicuous ribs

11

Internodes with pigskin-like pits below nodes, ribs inconspicuous

12

11.

Culm leaf sheaths thickly leathery, tough, margins ciliate; new shoots autumn and winter

S. scabrida T. H. Wen

Culm leaf sheaths leathery or thickly papery, not tough, margins without cilia; new shoots summer

S. striata T. H. Wen

12.

Young culms with white powder; margins of culm leaf sheaths with brown setae; foliage leaf blades with pubescence or tomenta abaxially or occasionally with bristle

13

Young culms without white powder, only with white powder below nodes; margins of culm leaf sheaths glabrous; foliage leaf blades glabrous or with short pubescence

14

13.

The lower margins of culm leaf blades crinkled with long setae; sheath scars of branches with setae; foliage leaf ligules developed, triangular, 2–3 mm tall

S. nandanensis T. H. Wen

Margins of culm leaf blades flat, with setae; sheath scars of branches glabrous; foliage leaf ligules very short, inconspicuous

S. henryi (McClure) C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao

14.

Culm leaf sheaths with purple brown spots abaxially; foliage leaf blades with white pubescence abaxially

S. sulcata W. T. Lin et Z. M. Wu

Culm leaf sheaths without spots

15

15.

Culm leaf blades flat; foliage leaves 2 or 3 per branchlet, ligules 0.5–1 mm tall, blades glabrous abaxially

S. dushanensis (C. D. Chu et J. Q. Zhang) T. H. Wen

Culm leaf blades crinkled; foliage leaves 4 or 5 per branchlet, ligules 2 mm tall, blades with erect and short pubescence abaxially

S. urens T. H. Wen

Sinobambusa acutiligulata

W. T. Lin

Rhizomes monopodium. Culms diffuse, 2–3 m tall, 1.5–2 cm in diameter; internodes 25–30 cm long, with long white pubescence, grooved on branching side, a ring of white powder below nodes; sheath scars setose initially, a little prominent; nodes a little prominent. Branches 3, the basal nodes with 1 branch. Culm leaves deciduous, sheath apex blunt, with procumbent brown setae abaxially, much denser at the base, margins with sparse cilia; auricles tiny, oblong or nearly round, oral setae several, short; ligules arched, apex acute, 0.5–1 mm tall, margins ciliate; blades erect, oblong-triangular. Foliage leaves 5 per branchlet; sheaths with white setae; auricles tiny, nearly round, oral setae several or deciduous; ligules arched, 1.5–2 mm tall; blades 6–17 cm long, 0.8–1.7 cm wide, pubescent abaxially, secondary veins 3 pairs, transverse veins conspicuous.

Guangdong: Guangning, Gushui, Yunan, Yingde. The foot of mountains near riversides. Zone 10.

This species was treated as a synonym of Oligostachyum hupehense (J. L. Lu) Z. P. Wang et G. H. Ye) by some researchers (Li et al. 2006; Vorontsova et al. 2016).

Sinobambusa dushanensis

(C. D. Chu et J. Q. Zhang) T. H. Wen

Culms up to 10 m tall, 2–5 cm in diameter; internodes 25–40 cm long, with dense gray white setae initially, tiny pits present below nodes, flat on the branching side; sheath scars corky, setose initially; culm-nodes prominent, as tall as sheath scars. Branches 3, sometimes up to 7. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths with dense purple brown setae abaxially, especially dense at the base, margins with short cilia; auricles elliptic or falcate, upward, 5–9 mm long, coarse, oral setae purple brown, 8–15 mm long; ligules arched or truncate, 2–3 mm tall, margins with purple cilia; blades erect or reflexed, lanceolate, the base 1/2 as wide as the top of culm leaves, margins coarse. Foliage leaves 2–3 per branchlet; auricles falcate when present, oral setae undulate, 7 mm long; ligules 1 mm tall; blades 12–18 cm long, 1–2 cm wide, 1 margin serrate, secondary veins 5 pairs, transverse veins present. New shoots April to May.

Guizhou: Dushan; introduced into Kunming, Yunnan. Zone 9.

This species was treated as a synonym of Oligostachyum spongiosum (C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao) G. H. Ye et Z. P. Wang by some researchers (Vorontsova et al. 2016) (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1

Sinobambusa dushanensis. a. Culms; b. new shoot; c. bamboo grove

Sinobambusa farinosa

(McClure) T. H. Wen

Culms up to 7 m tall, 2–4 cm in diameter; internodes 40–60 cm long, glabrous, with thick white powder initially, only a ring of white powder below nodes when old, flat on the branching side; sheath scars initially with yellow brown setae, corky; nodes prominent, higher than sheath scars on nodes with branches. Branches 3. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths with thick white powder and purple brown to brown setae abaxially, especially dense at the base, margins with cilia or not; auricles elliptic or falcate, brown black, setose, oral setae up to 14 mm long; ligules arched, coarse, margins ciliate; blades erect or reflexed, lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, a little crinkled, 11–16 cm long, margins serrate. Foliage leaves 3–6 per branchlet; sheaths initially pubescent; auricles nearly absent, oral setae erect; ligules coarse abaxially; blades 13–19 cm long, 1.4–2.2 cm wide, glabrous or pubescent abaxially, secondary veins 4–6 pairs, transverse veins present. New shoots May.

Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi. Zones 9–10 (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2

Sinobambusa farinosa. a. Culms; b. bamboo grove

Sinobambusa glabrata

W. T. Lin et Z. J. Feng

Culms 2–3 m tall, 0.5–1.5 cm in diameter; internodes 11–17 cm long, glabrous, flat on the branching side; sheathnodes scars glabrous; nodes prominent. Branches 3 on the middle nodes, dominant branches nearly 2 times as thick as and as long as lateral branches. Culm leaves deciduous, the top of sheaths arched, nearly glabrous abaxially; auricles nearly oblong, flat, oral setae several; ligules 1–2 mm tall, margins serrate; blades erect, lanceolate, the base narrowed roundly, 2/3 as wide as the apex of culm leaves. Foliage leaves 3–5 per branchlet; auricles nearly falcate, oral setae radiate; ligules short; blades 5–12 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm wide, shortly pubescent abaxially, secondary veins 5–7 pairs, transverse veins inconspicuous.

Guangdong: Guangning (Jinshan). Low-altitude hill slopes. Zone 10.

Sinobambusa henryi

(McClure) C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao

Culms 7–15 m tall, 3–8 cm in diameter; internodes 30–60 cm long, with gray white setae and thin white powder initially, a ring of thick white powder below nodes, flat or grooved on the branching side; sheath scars with brown setae initially, prominent. Branches 3, lower nodes usually with branches 1 or 2. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths with white powder and black brown verrucose setae initially, the base usually with long setae, margins with brown black cilia; auricles elliptic, erect, coarse, oral setae erect or undulate; ligules arched, margins ciliate; blades erect, lanceolate, the base 1/2 as wide as the apex of culm leaves, glabrous or coarse, margins hispid. Foliage leaves 3–5 per branchlet; sheaths glabrous or with procumbent setae; auricles falcate when present, oral setae erect; ligules with or without cilia; blades 8–15 cm long, 1.5–2.3 cm wide, gray and pubescent abaxially, margins serrate, secondary veins 4 pairs, transverse veins present. New shoots April and May.

Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi. Hills and low lands. Zones 10–11.

Culms are large, erect, and tough, which can be used for buildings, boat poles, carrying tools, furnitures, farming tools, umbrella handles and ribs, and chopsticks.

Sinobambusa incana

T. H. Wen

Culms bent; internodes yellow green, nearly semicylindrical, glabrous, with ribs; sheath scars corky, with brown pubescence initially; nodes extremely prominent; intranodes glabrous. Branches 3, internodes flat to semicylindrical. Culm leaves leathery, the top of sheaths narrowed, with sparse yellow brown setae abaxially, pits left when setae deciduous, the basal margins with white pubescence, ribs conspicuous; auricles tiny or a little spreading, surfaces coarse with brown tomenta; ligules arched, with brown pubescence, especially dense at the base, margins ciliate; blades nearly subulate or lanceolate, erect, the base narrowed, 1/3 as wide as the apex of culm leaves. Foliage leaves 2–4 per branchlet; margins of sheaths ciliate, the top pubescent; auricles absent or inconspicuous, ovate when present, oral setae several, 7–8 mm long; ligules 1 mm tall, with yellow brown setae; blades 5–8 cm long, 7–10 mm wide, glabrous, margins serrate, transverse veins conspicuous. Flowering branches lateral, spicate, pseudospikelets 1–3, bracts 2–5, veins 7–9; pseudospikelets 9 cm long, 2–3 mm wide; bracts 2, veins 11–13, with prophyll and buds; prophyll nearly leathery, glabrous, keels 2; florets 11 for each pseudospikelet, rachilla a little zigzag, glabrous; lemma with 15 ribs, ribs and transverse veins forming rectangular networks, glabrous, apex acute; palea shorter than lemma, apex blunt, keels with sparse cilia, veins 5 between keels, veins 2 outside each keel; stamens 3, seldom 2, anthers yellow, 4–6 mm long, apex blunt or split; lodicules 3, the back one thick and short, the upper part diamond-shaped, the other lodicules thin and long, veins 7, nearly parallel, margins and apex with white cilia; ovary rodlike, glabrous, the base narrowed to be petiole, 1.5–2 mm long, style very short, 0.3 mm long, stigmas 3, 3 mm long, with white pubescence.

Guangdong. Zone 10.

Sinobambusa intermedia

McClure

Culms up to 5 m tall, 2 cm in diameter; internodes 50–60 cm long, dark green, with pale white setae and a ring of white powder below nodes initially, flat and grooved on the side with branches, pith cotton-like; sheath scars corky and prominent, with dense setae initially; nodes prominent. Branches 3, sometimes 1–2 branches on lower nodes, 5–7 branches on upper nodes. Culm leaves deciduous, the top of sheaths purple when fresh, with procumbent yellow brown setae abaxially, especially dense at the base, occasionally with pubescence, margins ciliate; auricles falcate, prominent or recumbent, surfaces coarse or setose, oral setae erect or undulate and radiate, up to 2 cm long; ligules arched, pubescent; blades green, apex purple, narrowly lanceolate, erect or reflexed. Foliage leaves 3–5 per branchlet; auricles inconspicuous or absent, oral setae several, erect, up to 9 mm long; ligules pubescent; blades 12–22 cm long, 1.3–2.8 cm wide, pale green abaxially, the abaxial base pubescent, margins serrate, secondary veins 5–6 pairs, transverse veins rectangular. Pseudospikelets 13 cm long, 3 mm wide; bracts 2–4, apex acute, glabrous; rachilla glabrous; lemma 12 mm long, 5 mm wide, apex with a cusp, 9–12 ribs and transverse veins forming networks; palea shorter than lemma, keels 2, veins 2 between keels, veins 3 outside each keel, keels ciliate, other parts glabrous, apex entire; lodicules 2 or 3, oblong to diamond, with white tomenta, apex ciliate, the base with 3 or 4 veins; anthers yellow; ovary oblong-ovate, glabrous, style 1, as long as ovary, stigmas 3, sometimes 2, plumose. New shoots April to May.

Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Chongqing, Sichuan, Yunnan. Zones 9–10.

This species is usually cultivated in scenic spots, such as Zhushan of Liangping, Chongqing, Shunan Bamboo Sea of Yibin, and Dujiangyan, Sichuan (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3

Sinobambusa intermedia. a. Branches; b. bamboo grove; c. new shoot; d. culms

Sinobambusa nandanensis

T. H. Wen

Culms 7–14 m tall, 3–6 cm in diameter; internodes 25–45 cm long, terete, flat on the branching side, with white powder initially, glabrous or nearly glabrous, with ribs, pigskin-like pits present below nodes, culm walls 5–9 mm thick; sheath scars corky, with 2–3-mm-long brown setae; nodes a little prominent; intranodes 8–12 mm tall. Branches 3, spreading or upward, nearly equal in size; sheath scars of branches setose. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths with procumbent brown 2-mm-long tomenta abaxially, especially dense at the base, upper margins with brown cilia, the apex truncate; auricles ovate, erect or spreading, 5–6 mm long, 3–4 mm wide, with brown setae on both surfaces, margins with brown cilia; ligules mountain-shaped, 3 mm tall, margins with 1–2-mm-long cilia; blades lanceolate, 5–9 cm long, 7–9 mm wide, erect or reflexed, the base not narrowed, 1/2 as wide as the top of sheaths, with brown setae abaxially, coarse adaxially, basal margins crinkled, with 4–7-mm-long setae, setae with 1-mm-long cilia. Foliage leaves 4–5 per branchlet; sheaths with brown tomenta initially; auricles falcate, 7 mm long, oral setae 6–9 mm long; ligules nearly triangular, 2–3 mm tall; blades 9–17 cm long, 14–23 mm wide, the base blunt, with 3–5-mm-long white tomenta and brown pubescence abaxially, secondary veins 4–6 pairs, transverse veins present. New shoots April.

Guangxi: Shankou Forestry Station of Nandan. Zones 9–10.

This species was treated as a synonym of Sinobambusa henryi (McClure) C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao in Flora of China and World Checklist of Bamboos and Rattans (Li et al. 2006; Vorontsova et al. 2016).

Sinobambusa nephroaurita

C. D. Chu et C. S. Chao

Culms 6–8 m tall, 2–3 cm in diameter; internodes 30–45 cm long, with white powder and setae initially, the base of the branching side flat, a ring of white powder below nodes; sheath scars with brown setae initially, corky; nodes prominent. Branches 3–5. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths with sparse purple brown setae abaxially, the base near the margin with dark brown setae; auricles kidney-shaped, 7–8 (15) mm long, 4–5 (9) mm wide, coarse, oral setae radiate, 10–15 mm long; ligules arched, 2–3 mm tall, entire; blades reflexed or recurved, narrowly lanceolate, triangular or lanceolate, with white pubescence, margins serrate. Foliage leaves 4–6 per branchlet; auricles tiny or undeveloped, oral setae erect, up to 1 cm long; ligules arched or truncate; blades 11–18 cm long, 1.1–1.6 cm wide, margins serrate, secondary veins 4–6. New shoots April to May.

Sichuan, Guangdong, Guangxi. Zones 9–10 (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4

Sinobambusa nephroaurita. a. Branches; b. culm leaf; c. bamboo grove

Sinobambusa rubroligula

McClure

Culms 2–4 m tall, 1 cm in diameter; internodes up to 27 cm long, pale green, glabrous or with sparse pubescence, flat at the base of the branching side, a ring of white powder below nodes, nearly solid; sheath scars with brown setae initially, corky; nodes prominent, as tall as sheath scars. Branches 3, later 5–7 branches. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths green with purple when fresh, glabrous abaxially, with dense purple setae at the base, margins ciliate; auricles absent, oral setae absent or several, erect; ligules arched, purple, coarse or with setae abaxially, 1–2 mm tall, margins ciliate; blades usually reflexed, green, margins and apex purple, lanceolate, tomentose among ribs abaxially, the base narrowed, 1/3 as wide as the apex of sheaths. Foliage leaves 5–7 per branchlet; sheaths glabrous or setose, margins ciliate; auricles tiny or developed, oral setae erect, apex undulate, ca. 1 cm long; ligules arched, 1–2 mm tall, pubescent abaxially, entire; blades 10–22 cm long, 0.8–2.6 cm wide, pubescent abaxially, margins serrate, secondary veins 5–6 pairs. New shoots April to May.

Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi; introduced into Fujian and Yunnan. Zones 10–11 (Fig. 5).
Fig. 5

Sinobambusa rubroligula. a. Culms; b. new shoot; c. bamboo grove

Sinobambusa scabrida

T. H. Wen

Culms up to 5 m tall, 15–20 mm in diameter; internodes glabrous, with white powder when young, especially thick within intranodes and below nodes, ribs present, flat on the branching side; sheath scars corky, with brown setae initially; nodes prominent, ridgelike; intranodes 4–6 mm tall. Culm leaf sheaths thickly leathery, triangular, with brown setae abaxially initially, pits present when setae deciduous, the base with dense brown setae; auricles oblong elliptic, dark brown, with brown setae, oral setae long; ligules arched, margins with short cilia; blades lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, erect, glabrous, with ribs, the base narrowed. Branches 3. Foliage leaves 3–4 per branchlet; auricles and oral setae absent; ligules short, truncate; blades 8–11 cm long, 11–18 mm wide, the base blunt, asymmetric, glabrous, margins serrate on one side, secondary veins 4 or 5 pairs, transverse veins conspicuous. New shoots winter.

Guangxi: Lingdong (Juejin, Qinglong Mountain). Zone 10.

Sinobambusa seminuda

T. H. Wen

Culms 4–5 m tall, 1–2 cm in diameter; internodes 40 cm long, with thin white powder and pubescence initially, a ring of white powder below nodes, flat on the branching side, sometimes semicylindrical; sheath scars corky, prominent, tomentose and setose initially; nodes prominent, ridgelike. Branches 3. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths with thick white powder abaxially, densely brown setose at the base, margins ciliate; auricles falcate, light purple, erect or upward, 3–4 mm long, 1 mm wide, setose, oral setae radiate; ligules arched, 2 mm tall, entire, apex with cilia; blades green, narrowly triangular or lanceolate, erect or reflexed. Foliage leaves 5–6 per branchlet; auricles undeveloped, occasionally ovate or falcate, oral setae several; ligules 1–2 mm tall, tomentose; petioles glabrous or pubescent abaxially; blades 9–18 (25) cm long, 1.1–2.3 (4.5) cm wide, white pubescent abaxially, margins serrate, secondary veins 5–6 pairs. New shoots May to June.

Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, Yunnan. Zones 9–10.

This species was treated as a synonym of Pleioblastus hsienchuensis T. H. Wen in World Checklist of Bamboos and Rattans (Vorontsova et al. 2016) or P. hsienchuensis var. subglabratus (S. Y. Chen) C. S. Chao et G. Y. Yang in Flora of China (Li et al. 2006) (Fig. 6).
Fig. 6

Sinobambusa seminuda. Bamboo grove

Sinobambusa striata

T. H. Wen

Culms up to 10 m tall, 5–6 cm in diameter; internodes 65 cm long, with erect short setae and white powder below nodes initially, the base flat on the branching side, pith spongy; sheath scars with brown setae initially, corky, prominent; nodes prominent. Branches 3. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths green with purple brown stripes abaxially, brown setose, pits present when setae deciduous, the base glabrous or with brown setae, margins without cilia; auricles elliptic, erect, oral setae present; ligules arched, margins ciliate; blades erect, margins purple and serrate, triangular, pubescent. Foliage leaves 1–2 per branchlet; auricles and oral setae absent; blades 9–11 cm long, 1.2–1.8 cm wide, pale green abaxially, pubescent, secondary veins 4–6 pairs, transverse veins present. New shoots May.

Jiangxi , especially common in Jinggang Mountain. Zone 9.

This species was treated as a synonym of Indosasa longispicata W. Y. Hsiung et C. S. Chao in Flora of China and World Checklist of Bamboos and Rattans (Li et al. 2006; Vorontsova et al. 2016) (Fig. 7).
Fig. 7

Sinobambusa striata. a. Young culms; b. culm bud; c. new shoot; d. bamboo grove

Sinobambusa sulcata

W. T. Lin et Z. M. Wu

Culms 3–4 m tall, 1–1.5 cm in diameter; internodes 15–25 cm long, the basal nodes short, swollen, grooved on the branching side, white powdery below nodes, nearly solid; sheath scars a little prominent; nodes prominent. Branches 3 on the middle nodes, the upper nodes with branches 4–5. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths with setae and purple brown spots abaxially, margins without cilia; auricles and oral setae absent; ligules 0.5–0.8 mm tall, margins with white cilia; blades recurved or reflexed, narrowly lanceolate. Foliage leaves 4–5 per branchlet; auricles and oral setae absent; ligules 0.5 mm tall; blades 10–17 cm long, 0.9–1 cm wide, white pubescent abaxially, secondary veins 4–5 pairs, transverse veins conspicuous.

Guangdong: Taishan (Gudoushan). Zone 10.

Sinobambusa tootsik

(Makino) Makino

Culms diffuse, 5–12 m tall, 2–6 cm in diameter; internodes 30–40 (80) cm long, with white powder initially, especially thick below nodes, old culms with ribs, flat and grooved on the branching side; sheath scars corky and prominent, with purple brown setae initially; nodes prominent, as tall as sheath scars. Branches 3, sometimes 5–7, nodes prominent. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths nearly oblong, apex obtuse, the abaxial surface light red initially, with thin white powder and procumbent brown setae abaxially, especially dense at the base, margins ciliate; auricles ovate to elliptic, those on upper culms falcate, tomentose or coarse, oral setae undulate, up to 2 cm long; ligules 4 mm tall, arched, margins with cilia or glabrous; blades green, lanceolate or long-lanceolate, reflexed, margins serrate, narrowed inward and then extended outside. Foliage leaves 3–6 (9) per branchlet; auricles inconspicuous, occasionally ovate and spreading, oral setae radiate, up to 15 mm long; ligules 1–1.5 mm tall; blades 6–22 cm long, 1–3.5 cm wide, pale white and pubescent abaxially, margins serrate, secondary veins 4–8 pairs, transverse veins present. Pseudospikelets 1–3 (5) on each flowering branch, terminal pseudospikelets with 2–11-mm-long petiole (it is actually the tip internode of flowering branches), lateral pseudospikelets sessile, linear, 8–20 cm long, 2–3 mm thick, subtended by 2 or several bracts, gradually larger apically and lemma-like, the upper 1 or 2 bracts with buds; rachilla internodes 5–7 mm long, flat, pubescent on the upper part; florets, oblong, 7–12 mm long, pale green, glabrous; lemma ovate, 7 mm wide, leathery and papery, apex acute with a cusp, margins with upward cilia, apex ciliate, veins 15, transverse veins present; palea elliptic, as long as lemma or shorter, 4 mm wide, apex blunt, 2-keeled, keels and apex ciliate, transverse veins inconspicuous between keels, ribs inconspicuous, 2 or 3 veins outside each keel; lodicules 3, membranous, nearly diamond, elliptic, or ovate, the back one irregular, upper part ciliate, the base cuneate, thick, veins 7–9, 2.5 mm long; anthers 4–6 mm long, light yellow; ovary cylindrical, 1.8–2 mm long, glabrous, style 1, very short, stigmas 3, 3–4 mm long, plumose. New shoots April to May.

China: Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi; introduced into Kunming Expo Garden. Vietnam, introduced into Japan, Europe, and the USA. Zones 9–10.

It is a beautiful bamboo for ornamentation (Figs. 8 and 9).
Fig. 8

Sinobambusa tootsik. 1. Part of the culm, showing branches; 2. leaf branches; 3. culm leaf; 4. the top of the shoot; 5. flowering branches; 6, 7. prophyll; 8. diagram of pseudospikelet; 9. lemma; 10. palea; 11. lodicules; 12. anthers; 13. pistil (adapted from Keng and Wang 1996)

Fig. 9

Sinobambusa tootsik. a. Branches and internode; b. scenery; c. new shoots; d. culm leaf; e. bamboo grove

a. Sinobambusa tootsik

(Makino) Makino var. dentata T. H. Wen.

The apex of culm leaf ligule dentate or doubly dentate; foliage leaf blades glabrous.

Northeast Fujian. Zone 10.

b. Sinobambusa tootsik

(Makino) Makino var. laeta (McClure) T. H. Wen.

Culm leaf blades usually purple; foliage leaf auricles and oral setae developed; veins of lodicules several.

Fujian, Guangdong. Zone 10 (Fig. 10).
Fig. 10

Sinobambusa tootsik var. laeta. a. Internodes and branches; b. new shoots; c. bamboo grove

c. Sinobambusa tootsik

(Makino) Makino var. tenuifolia (Koidzumi) S. Suzuki.

Abaxial epidermis of foliage leaves glabrous.

China: Guangxi. Japan. Zone 10 (Fig. 11).
Fig. 11

Sinobambusa tootsik var. tenuifolia. New shoot and culms

d. Sinobambusa tootsik

(Makino) Makino f. luteolo-albo-striata (S. H. Chen et Z. Z. Wang) T. P. Yi.

Foliage leaf blades with yellow-white stripes; culm leaf blades green when fresh, with yellow-white stripes, stripes wider on the lateral side.

Fujian: Xiamen (introduced from Guangdong) (Yi et al. 2007). Zone 10.

It is a beautiful bamboo species for ornamentation (Fig. 12).
Fig. 12

Sinobambusa tootsik f. luteolo-albo-striata. a. Culms; b. bamboo grove; c. new shoots; d. new shoots and foliage leaves; e. culm leaf; f. foliage leaves

Sinobambusa urens

T. H. Wen

Culms 7 m tall, 3 cm in diameter; internodes ca. 50 cm long, flat on branching side, pits present below nodes, a ring of white powder below node initially, culm walls thin; sheath scars corky, with brown setae initially; nodes ridgelike, prominent; intranodes 5–7 mm tall, with black powder. Branches 3 on each node. Culm leaves deciduous, sheaths oblong-triangular, the apex nearly truncate, with white powder abaxially initially, sheaths on middle and upper culms glabrous abaxially, the base with setae, sheaths on basal culms with setae abaxially and brown setae at the base, margins without cilia; auricles spreading, elliptic, brown, 7 mm long, 3 mm wide, with brown tomenta, margins with 1-cm-long setae; ligules arched, 2 mm tall, with 2-mm-long brown setae; blades green, narrowly triangular to narrowly strapped, crinkled, erect or reflexed, margins serrate. Foliage leaves 4 or 5 per branchlet; margins of sheaths without cilia; auricles very developed, falcate, 1–2 mm long, oral setae erect or radiate; ligules 2 mm tall, entire; blades lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, the base gradually narrowed or blunt, with short pubescence abaxially, margins serrate, secondary veins 5–8 pairs, transverse veins extremely prominent. New shoots May.

Fujian: Fuding (Fenshuiguan). Zone 10.

References

  1. Keng PC, Wang ZP (1996) Bambusoideae. Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, Vol. 9(1). Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. Li DZ, Wang ZP, Zhu ZD, Xia NH, Jia LZ, Guo ZH, Yang GY, Stapleton CMA (2006) Bambuseae (Poaceae). In: Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (eds) Flora of China. Science Press/Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing/St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  3. Shi JY, Yi TP, Ma LS, Wang HT, Yang L (2012) The ornamental bamboos in China. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  4. Vorontsova MS, Clark LG, Dransfield J, Govaerts RHA, Baker WJ (2016) World checklist of bamboos and rattans. Techn Rep 37(i-iv):1–454Google Scholar
  5. Yi TP, Shi JY, Wang HT, Ma LS, Yang L (2007) A new species, some new combinations and new distributions of Bambusoideae, China. J Sichuan For Sci Tech 28(3):15–18Google Scholar
  6. Yi TP, Shi JY, Ma LS, Wang HT, Yang L (2008) Iconographia Bambusoidearum Sinicarum. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  7. Yi TP, Shi JY, Ma LS, Zhang YX, Zhou DQ, Yao J (2017) Iconographia Bambusoidearum Sinicarum II. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Yi Shi
    • 1
  • Yu Xiao Zhang
    • 2
    Email author
  • De Qun Zhou
    • 3
  • Li Sha Ma
    • 4
  • Jun Yao
    • 1
  1. 1.Southwest Flower Research and Development CenterChinese Academy of ForestryKunmingChina
  2. 2.Yunnan Academy of BiodiversitySouthwest Forestry UniversityKunmingChina
  3. 3.Kunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina
  4. 4.Sichuan Agricultural UniversityDujiangyan, ChengduChina

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