Advertisement

Protest as Communication for Development and Social Change

Living reference work entry

Abstract

Protest is an instrument used to agitate for social change globally, however, in spite of the increasing use of protest to address socioeconomic and political grievances, there has been limited critical scholarly study of protest in the communication for development and social change (CDSC) scholarship. Protest is communication. It is a communication strategy for drawing attention to developmental and social issues that affect the well-being of citizens. Communication for development and social change utilizes various communication approaches, such as social marketing, public awareness and information campaign, entertainment-education, media advocacy, social mobilization, and many others. In addition to these approaches, protest action is situated as a communication approach for development and social change. In this chapter, protest culture is engaged critically by drawing theoretically from conceptual discourses of participation, participatory development communication, grassroots bottom-up social change, social movement theory, collective action theory, and critical analysis of power. This chapter also provides a framework for the use of protest as communication for development and social change by identifying types and methods of protest, and ends by offering critical guidelines of how protest can be effectively used as communication strategy for development and social change.

Keywords

Protest Mass mobilization Protest as communication Participation Social movement Collective action 

References

  1. Alexander P (2010) Rebellion of the poor: South Africa’s service delivery protests – a preliminary analysis. Rev Afr Polit Econ 37(123):25–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bean C (1991) Participation and political protest: a causal model with Australian evidence. Polit Behav 13(3):253–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhardwai V (Africa Check) (2017) Are there 30 service delivery protests a day in South Africa? Africa Check. Retrieved 8 Oct 2017 from https://africacheck.org/reports/are-there-30-service-delivery-protests-a-day-in-south-africa-2/
  4. Brown G, Yaffe H (2014) Practices of solidarity: opposing apartheid in the centre of London. Antipode 46(1):34–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buechler SM (1995) New social movement theories. Sociol Q 36(3):441–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burke S (2014) What an era of global protest says about the effectiveness of human rights as a language to achieve social change. SUR: Int J Hum Rights 20:27–33Google Scholar
  7. Carpentier N (2011) Media and participation: A site of ideological-democratic struggle. Intellect, BristolCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpentier N (2012) The concept of participation. If they have access and interact, do they really participate? Revista Fronteiras – estudos midiaticos 14(2):164–177Google Scholar
  9. Caren N (2007). Political process theory. In: Ritzer G (ed) Blackwell encyclopedia of sociology. http://www.sociologyencyclopedia.com/public/
  10. Carothers T, Youngs R (2015) The complexities of global protest. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Edwards B, Giliham P (2013) Resource mobilization theory. In: Snow D, Porta D, Klandermans B, McAdam D (eds) The Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of social and political movements. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., OxfordGoogle Scholar
  12. Foucault M (1982) The subject and power. Crit Inq 8(4):777–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gurney JN, Tierney KJ (1982) Relative deprivation and social movement: a critical look at the twenty years of theory and research. Sociol Q 23:33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heller N (2017, August 21) Is there any point to protesting? The New Yorker. Retrieved 26 Oct 2017. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/08/21/is-there-any-point-to-protesting
  15. Huesca R (2008) Tracing the history of participatory communication approaches to development: a critical appraisal. In: Servaes J (ed) Communication for development and social change. Sage, Thousands OaksGoogle Scholar
  16. Jenkins JC (1983) Resource mobilization theory and the study of social movements. Annu Rev Sociol 9:527–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jensen M, Jorba L, Anduiza E (2012) Introduction. In: Anduiza E (ed) Digital media and political engagement worldwide: a comparative study. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Kurtz LR (2010) The anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa. International Center on Nonviolent Conflict. Retrieved 8 Oct 2017 from https://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/the-anti-apartheid-struggle-in-south-africa-1912-1992/
  19. Le Roux-Kemp A (2014) Struggle music: south African politics in song. Law Humanit 8(2):247–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McAdam D (1982) Political process and the development of black insurgency, 1930–1970. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  21. McAdam D (2013) Political process theory. The Wiley-Blackwell encyclopedia of social and political movements. Retrieved 19 October 2017 from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470674871.wbespm160/full
  22. Melkote SR, Steeves HL (2015) Communication for development: theory and practice for empowerment and social justice. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  23. Merton R (1938) Social structure and anomie. Am Sociol Rev 3(5):672–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Morrison DE (1971) Some notes toward theory on relative deprivation, social movements, and social change. Am Behav Sci 14(5):675–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nyar A, Wray C (2012) Understanding protest action: some data collection challenges for South Africa. Transformation 80:22–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pateman C (1970) Participation and democratic theory. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Porta DD, Diani M (2006) Social movement; an introduction. Blackwell, MaldenGoogle Scholar
  28. Ratliff TN, Hall LL (2014) Practicing the art of dissent: toward a typology of protest activity in the United States. Humanit Soc 38(3):268–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rogers E (ed) (1976) Communication and development: critical perspectives. Sage Publications, Beverly HillsGoogle Scholar
  30. Runciman C (2017, 22 May) SA is the protest capital of the world. Pretoria News. Retrieved 26 Oct 2017 from https://www.iol.co.za/pretoria-news/sa-is-protest-capital-of-the-world-9279206
  31. Ruhlig T (2016) ‘Do you hear the people sing’ ‘Lift your umbrella: Understanding Hong Kong’s pro-democratic umbrella movement through YouTube music videos. China Perspective 2016/4Google Scholar
  32. Sen A, Avci O (2016) Why social movements occur: theories of social movements. Bilgi Ekonomisi ve Yönetimi Dergisi 11(1):125–130Google Scholar
  33. Servaes J (1999) Communication for development. one world, multiple cultures. Hampton Press, CresskillGoogle Scholar
  34. Servaes J (2002) Approaches to development communication. UNESCO, Paris Available http://www.unesco.org/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/approaches_to_development_communication.pdfGoogle Scholar
  35. Smelser N (1962) Theory of collective behavior. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Snow DA, Soule SA, Kriesi H (2004) Mapping the terrain. In: Snow DA, Soule SA, Kriesi H (eds) The Blackwell companion to social movements. Blackwell, MaldenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Solop FI (1990) Public protest and public policy: the anti-apartheid movement and political innovation. Policy Stud Rev 9(2):307–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Srnicek N, Williams A (2016) Inventing the future: postcapitalism and a world without work. Verso, BrooklynGoogle Scholar
  39. Thomas P (1994) Participatory development communication: philosophical premises. In: White SA, Nair KS, Ascroft J (eds) Participatory communication: working for change and development. Sage, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  40. Tilly C (1977) From mobilization to revolution. University of Michigan, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  41. Trigg C (2010) A change ain’t gonna gome: Sam Cooke and the protest song. Univ Tor Q 79(3):992–1003Google Scholar
  42. Wilkins KG, Tufte T, Obregon R (2014) The handbook of development communication and social change. Wiley Blackwell, MaldenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Williams JJ (2009) The everyday at grassroots level: poverty, protest and social change in post-apartheid South Africa. Clacso working papers. Retrieved 8 Oct 2017 from http://hdl.handle.net/10566/2036
  44. Woolman S (1998) Freedom of assembly. Retrieved 12 Oct 2017 from http://www.chr.up.ac.za/chr_old/centre_publications/constitlaw/pdf/21-Freedom%20of%20Assembly.pdf

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Communication and Media StudiesUniversity of LimpopoSovengaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations