Encyclopedia of Ocean Engineering

Living Edition
| Editors: Weicheng Cui, Shixiao Fu, Zhiqiang Hu

Hybrid Remotely Operated Vehicle (HROV)/Autonomous and Remotely Operated Vehicle (ARV)

  • Pengfei XuEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6963-5_47-1



A hybrid remotely operated vehicle (HROV), also known as autonomous and remotely operated vehicle (ARV) is a latest innovation of unmanned submersibles which can combine the advantages of ROV technology and AUV technology to explore the oceans freely in a relatively large range and photo the seafloor in site with reliable interventions. Compared with traditional ROVs, the vehicle is self-powered while its tether is fiber-optical and finer with less restriction. A typical HROV consists of three major components: underwater vehicle, tether system, and surface support. The fiber-optical tether system and hybrid control architecture are notable features of HROVs.

Scientific Fundamentals

Historical Development

The concept of a light-tethered vehicle for 11,000 m operations appears to have been first proposed by James MacFarlane of International Submarine Engineering Company (ISE) in...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Bowen AD, Yoerger DR, Whitcomb LL, Fornari DJ (2004) Exploring the deepest depths: preliminary design of a novel light-tethered hybrid rov for global science in extreme environments. Mar Technol Soc J 38(38):92–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowen AD, Yoerger DR, Taylor C, Mccabe R, Howland J, Gomez-Ibanez D, et al (2009) The Nereus hybrid underwater robotic vehicle for global ocean science operations to 11,000m depth. In: Oceans. Quebec City, Canda. IEEE, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  3. Bowen AD, Yoerger DR, Taylor C, Mccabe R (2010) Field trials of the nereus hybrid underwater robotic vehicle in the challenger deep of the mariana trench. Proceedings of the Oceans 2009 MTS/IEEE Conference. Biloxi, Mississippi. 1–10Google Scholar
  4. Bowen AD, Yoerger DR, German CC, Kinsey JC (2015) Design of Nereid-UI: A remotely operated underwater vehicle for oceanographic access under ice. Oceans, St.Johns. USA. IEEE, 1–6Google Scholar
  5. Brignone L, Raugel E, Opderbecke J, Rigaud V, Piasco R, Ragot S (2015) First sea trials of HROV the new hybrid vehicle developed by IFREMER. Oceans, St.Johns. USA. IEEE, 1–7Google Scholar
  6. Cooke R (2005) Marine technology: back to the bottom. Nature 437(7059):612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fletcher B, Bowen A, Yoerger DR, Whitcomb LL (2009) Journey to the challenger deep: 50 years later with the Nereus hybrid remotely operated vehicle. Mar Technol Soc J 43(5):65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Garcia JC, Perez J, Menezes P, Sanz PJ (2016) A control architecture for hybrid underwater intervention systems. In: 2016 I.E. International conference on systems, man and cybernetics, Oct 9–12, 2016, Budapest, HungaryGoogle Scholar
  9. McFarlane J (1990) ROV-AUV hybrid for operating to 38,000 feet. Mar Technol Soc J 24(2):87–90Google Scholar
  10. Nakajoh H, Murashima T, Aoki T, Tukioka S (1998) 7,000 m class expendable optical fiber cable ROV (UROV7K) system. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering–OMAE-98, July. pp. 5–9, Lisbon, Portugal, OMAEGoogle Scholar
  11. Shuo LI, Zeng J, Wang Y (2011) Navigation under the arctic ice by autonomous & remotely operated underwater vehicle. Robotics 33(4):509–512Google Scholar
  12. Webster SE, Bowen AD (2003) Feasibility analysis of an 11,000 m vehicle with a fiber optic microcable link to the surface. Oceans, San Diego, USA. IEEE, 5, 2469–2474Google Scholar
  13. Xu P (2014) Research on system design and key technology of ARV with full ocean depth. [D]. China Ship Scientific Research CenterGoogle Scholar
  14. Young C, Fletcher B, Buescher J, Whitcomb LL (2006) Field Tests of the Hybrid Remotely Operated Vehicle (HROV) Light Fiber Optic Tether. Oceans, Boston, USA. IEEE, 1–6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Marine Vehicle and Underwater TechnologyHohai UniversityNanjingChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Weicheng Cui
    • 1
  1. 1.Hadal Science and Technology Research CenterShanghai Ocean UniversityShanghaiChina