Encyclopedia of Ocean Engineering

Living Edition
| Editors: Weicheng Cui, Shixiao Fu, Zhiqiang Hu

Probabilistic Aspects for Ice Loads on Ships

  • Wei ChaiEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-6963-5_130-1


For ships in the Arctic, ice loads caused by ship and ice interaction represent the dominant load. Ice loads on ship hull is random by nature as other environmental loads. The knowledge of ice loads can promote design and operation of ice-capable vessels in Arctic regions. However, due to the complexity of ship and ice interaction process, studies with respect to the ice loads are limited and still under development. Ice loads on ship hull can be calculated by empirical formula and numerical simulation and collected by laboratory experiments and full-scale field measurements. Among these methods, full-scale field measurements are the most effective way to study the properties of ice loads (Ehlers et al. 2015). In this entry, the randomness of ice loads and the reasons that cause the randomness of ice-induced loads are introduced. Previous studies for probabilistic descriptions and analysis of the full-scale measured ice loads on ship hull are summarized in this work. The...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Chai W, Naess A, Leira BJ, Bulian G (2016) Efficient Monte Carlo simulation and Grim effective wave model for predicting the extreme response of a vessel rolling in random head seas. Ocean Eng 123:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chai W, Leira BJ, Naess A (2018a) Probabilistic methods for estimation of the extreme value statistics of ship ice loads. Cold Reg Sci Technol 146:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chai W, Leira BJ, Naess A (2018b) Short-term extreme ice loads prediction and fatigue damage evaluation for an icebreaker. Ships Offshore Struct 13(Suppl 1):127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ehlers S, Cheng F, Jordaan I, Kuehnlein W, Kujala P, Luo Y, Ralph F, Riska K, Sirkar J, Oh Y (2015) V. 6 Arctic technology. In: Proceedings of the International Ship Structures Committee (ISSC), Taylor & FrancisGoogle Scholar
  5. Jordaan IJ (2001) Mechanics of ice–structure interaction. Eng Fract Mech 68(17–18):1923–1960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jordaan IJ, Maes MA, Brown PW, Hermans IP (1993) Probabilistic analysis of local ice pressures. J Offshore Mech Arct Eng 115(1):83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kheisin D, Popov Y (1973) Ice navigation qualities of ships. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report, CRREL No. TL417, Hanover, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  8. Kujula P (1994) On the statistics of ice loads on ship hull in the Baltic. Helsinki University of Technology, EspooGoogle Scholar
  9. Lensu M (2002) Short term prediction of ice loads experienced by ice going ships. Helsinki University of Technology, EspooGoogle Scholar
  10. Næss A, Gaidai O (2009) Estimation of extreme values from sampled time series. Struct Saf 31(4):325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Naess A, Moan T (2012) Stochastic dynamics of marine structures. Cambridge, New York, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  12. Ochi MK (1990) Applied probability and stochastic processes: in engineering and physical sciences. Wiley-Interscience, New YorkzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Ralph F, Jordaan I (2013) Probabilistic methodology for design of arctic ships. In: ASME 2013 32nd international conference on ocean, offshore and Arctic engineering, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, p V006T007A010-V006T007A010Google Scholar
  14. Riska K (2010) Ship-ice interaction in ship design: theory and practice. In: Encyclopedia of life support systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO. Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. Suominen M (2018) Uncertainty and variation in measured ice-induced loads on a ship hull, PhD thesis, University of Alto, Espoo, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  16. Suyuthi A, Leira B, Riska K (2013a) Fatigue damage of ship hulls due to local ice-induced stresses. Appl Ocean Res 42:87–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Suyuthi A, Leira B, Riska K (2013b) Statistics of local ice load peaks on ship hulls. Struct Saf 40:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Suyuthi A, Leira B, Riska K (2014) A generalized probabilistic model of ice load peaks on ship hulls in broken-ice fields. Cold Reg Sci Technol 97:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Structural Engineering, School of TransportationWuhan University of TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.Department of Marine TechnologyNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

Section editors and affiliations

  • Zhenhui Liu
    • 1
  • Wenjun Lu
    • 2
  1. 1.SURFAker Solutions, NorwayTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway