Advertisement

Sexual Orientation and Workplace Bullying

  • Helge HoelEmail author
  • Duncan Lewis
  • Anna Einarsdóttir
Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbooks of Workplace Bullying, Emotional Abuse and Harassment book series (HWBEAH, volume 3)

Abstract

By exploring the experience of non-heterosexual workers, this chapter illuminates issues previously overlooked in the bullying literature. Initially, some methodological barriers associated with research on such “hard-to-reach” groups are outlined. Pointing out methodological advances, the chapter reviews lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) workers’ experiences, concluding that they are at greater risk of bullying than their heterosexual colleagues, particularly with respect to more severe forms of bullying, with lesbians and bisexual women facing the greatest risk. Behaviourally, LGBs are exposed more often than heterosexuals to sexualized behaviour and social exclusion. With reality arguably different in many less developed countries, it is argued that the term homophobia rarely chimes with the experience of LGBs, with “minority stress” seemingly a useful concept when assessing consequences. In explaining bullying among LGBs, disclosure of non-heterosexuality in the workplace, a process considered unique to sexual minorities, is given attention. The conclusion is that the process is not entirely under the control of LGBs themselves as “the audience” plays a key role in assisting or indeed sometimes preventing disclosure. With disclosure processes (and bullying) often influenced by stereotypes, their nature and impact are considered. The roles of social identity and social categorization are explored as behaviours considered deviant in terms of group expectations and group prototypicality are penalized.

In response, the usefulness of Allport’s contact theory, emphasizing intergroup contact and the need for social support, is discussed together with enforcement of policy and behavioural standards to challenge prejudice and (unconscious) bias. While any organizational success is seen to rest on awareness, education and, not least, management commitment, achieving equal treatment for non-heterosexual workers is deemed to rest on the dominance of normative heterosexuality being challenged.

References

  1. Abrams, D. (2010). Processes of prejudice: Theory, evidence and intervention. Equality and Human Rights Commission, Research Report 56. https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/research-report-56-processes-of-prejudice-theory-evidence-and-intervention.pdf
  2. Abrams, D., Swift, H.J., & Mahmood, L. (2016). Prejudice and unlawful behaviour: Exploring levers for change. Research Report 101, Equality and Human Rights Commission. Manchester: EHRC.Google Scholar
  3. ACAS. (2007). The experiences of sexual orientation and religion or belief discrimination employment tribunal claimants. London: ACAS.Google Scholar
  4. Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  5. Almack, K. (2008). Women Parenting Together: A reflexive account of the ways in which the researcher’s identity and experiences may impact on the processes of doing research. Sociological Research Online, 13(1).  https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. The Academy of Management Review, 14, 20–39.  https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1989.4278999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day’s work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. The Academy of Management Review, 25, 472–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aspinall, P. (2009). Estimating the size and composition of the lesbian, gay and bisexual population in Britain. Manchester: EHRC.Google Scholar
  9. Berdahl, J. (2007). Harassment based on sex: Protecting social status in the context of gender hierarchy. Academy of Management Review, 32, 641–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernstein, M., & Swartwout, P. (2012). Gay officers in their midst: Heterosexual police employees’ anticipation of the consequences for coworkers who come out. Journal of Homosexuality, 59, 1145–1166.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Björkqvist, K. (2001). Social defeat as a stressor in humans. Physiology & Behavior, 7, 435–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boehmer, U. (2002). Twenty years of public health research: Inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1125–1130.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brewer, M. B. (1999). The psychology of prejudice: Ingroup love and outgroup hate? Journal of Social Issues, 55, 429–444.  https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brewer, M. B., & Miller, N. (1984). Beyond the contact hypothesis: Theoretical perspectives on desegregation. In N. Miller & M. Brewer (Eds.), Groups in contact: The psychology of desegregation (pp. 281–302). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Browning, J. B., & Brewis, J. (2009). Managing lesbian and gay identity in the Canadian workplace. Equal Opportunities International, 28, 361–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chakrapani, V., Vijin, P. P., Logie, C. H., Newman, P. A., Shunmugam, M., Sivasubramanian, M., & Samuel, M. (2017). Understanding how sexual and gender minority stigmas influence depression among trans women and men who have sex with men in India. LGBT Health, 4, 217–226.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Clair, J. A., Beatty, J. E., & MacLean, T. L. (2005). Out of sight but not out of mind: Managing invisible social identities in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 30, 78–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cochran, S. D. (2001). Emerging issues in research on lesbians’ and gay men’s mental health: Does sexual orientation really matter? American Psychologist, 56, 931–947.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Colgan, F., Creegan, C., McKearney, A., & Wright, T. (2006). Lesbian, gay and bisexual workers – Equality, diversity and inclusion in the workplace. A qualitative research study. London: Comparative Organisation and Equality Research Centre (COERC), London Metropolitan University.Google Scholar
  20. Colgan, F., Creegan, C., McKearney, A., & Wright, T. (2008). Lesbian workers. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12, 31–45.  https://doi.org/10.1300/10894160802174284.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Connell, R. W. (2005). Masculinities. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  22. Cortina, L. M. (2008). Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33, 55–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Croteau, J. M. (1996). Research on the work experiences of lesbian, gay and bisexual people: An integrative review of methodology and findings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 195–209.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1996.0018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Croteau, J. M., Anderson, M. Z., & VanderWal, B. L. (2008). Models of workplace sexual identity disclosure and management: Reviewing and extending concepts. Group & Organization Management, 336, 532–565.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601108321828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Day, N., & Schoenrade, P. (1997). Staying in the closet versus coming out: Relationships between communication about sexual orientation and work attitudes. Personnel Psychology, 50, 147–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Di Marco, D., Arenas, A., Munduate, L., & Hoel, H. (2015a). Estrategias de coming out de personas lesbianas y gays en el trabajo./Coming out strategies of lesbian and gay at work. Revista de Psicología Social/International Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 122–151.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02134748.2014.987503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Di Marco, D., Hoel, H., Arenas, A., & Munduate, L. (2015b). Workplace incivility as modern sexual prejudice. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515621083.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Di Marco, D., Munduate, L., Arenas, A., & Hoel, H. (2017). ¿Quién queda en el armario? La experiencia de los colectivos de personas Lesbianas y Gays en el tBjo. Madrid: Ediciones Pirámide.Google Scholar
  29. Di Marco, D., Arenas, A., Hoel, H., & Munduate, L. (in press). Living a double life and experiencing modern sexual prejudice: How they affect Ecuadorian LGB workers’ well-being. In N. Nakamura & C. Logic (Eds.), LGBT mental health: Global perspectives and experiences. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Publications.Google Scholar
  30. Dovidio, J. F. (2001). On the nature of contemporary prejudice: The third wave. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 829–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Einarsdóttir, A., Hoel, H., & Lewis, D. (2015). It’s nothing personal’: Anti-homosexuality in the British workplace. Sociology, 49, 1183–1199.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038515582160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Einarsdóttir, A., Hoel, H., & Lewis, D. (2016). Fitting the bill: Disclosure and embodiment. Work, Employment and Society., 30, 489–505.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017014568136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Einarsdóttir, A. Hoel, H., & Lewis, D. (under review). Killing humour? Bullying of sexual minority workers in prison culture. Work, Employment and Society.Google Scholar
  34. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, C. L. (2011). The concept of bullying at work: The European tradition. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Development in theory, research and practice (2nd ed., pp. 33–39). London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  35. Ellison, G., & Gunstone, B. (2009). Sexual orientation explored: A study of identity, attraction, behavior and attitudes in 2009. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.Google Scholar
  36. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. (2013). European Union lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender survey: Results at a glance. European Union Agency for Fundamental Right. Luxembourg: Publication Office for the European Union.Google Scholar
  37. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. (2017). EU research/legislation report Fundamental Rights Report 2017. Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  38. Evesson, J., Oxenbridge, S., & Taylor, D. (2015). Seeking better solutions: Tackling bullying and ill-treatment in Britain’s workplaces. Policy discussion paper. London: Acas. http://m.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/e/b/Seeking-better-solutions-tackling-bullying-and-ill-treatment-in-Britains-workplaces.pdf
  39. Fevre, R., Nichols, T., Prior, G., & Rutherford, I. (2009). Fair treatment at work Report: Findings from the 2008 survey. Employment Relations Research Series, No. 103. London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.Google Scholar
  40. Fevre, R., Lewis, D., Robinson, A., & Jones, T. (2012). Trouble at work. London: Bloomsbury Academic Press.Google Scholar
  41. Froyum, C. M. (2007). ‘At least I’m not gay’: Heterosexual identity making among poor black teens. Sexualities, 10, 603–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fyfe, B. (1983). “Homophobia” or homosexual bias reconsidered. Archives Sex Behavior, 12, 549–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  44. Goodman, L. (2012). Comment: On respondent-driven sampling and snowball sampling in hard-to-reach populations and snowball sampling not in hard-to-reach populations. Sociological Methodology, 42, 155–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gottlieb, B. H. (1981). Social networks and social support in community mental health. In B. H. Gottlieb (Ed.), Social networks and social support (pp. 11–42). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  46. Grainger, H., & Fitzner, G. (2006). The first fair treatment at work survey (2007). Employment Relations Research Series, No. 63. London: DTI.Google Scholar
  47. Griffin, P. (1992). From hiding out to coming out: Empowering lesbian and gay educators. In K. M. Harbeck (Ed.), Coming out of the classroom closet (pp. 167–196). Binghamton: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  48. Griffith, K., & Hebl, M. (2002). The disclosure dilemma for gay men and lesbians: “Coming work”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 1191–1199.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Heaphy, B. (2008). The sociology of lesbian and gay reflexivity or reflexive sociology. Sociological Research Online, 13(1).  https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.1675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hebl, M. R., Bigazzi, J., Mannix, L. M., & Dovidio, J. F. (2002). Formal and interpersonal discrimination: A field study of bias toward homosexual applicants. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 815–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Herek, G. M., & McLemore, K. A. (2013). Sexual prejudice. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 309–333.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Herek, G., Kimmel, D., Amaro, H., & Melton, G. (1991). Avoiding heterosexist bias in psychological research. American Psychologist, 44, 957–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Herek, G., Cogan, J., & Gillis, R. (2002). Victim experiences in hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Journal of Social Issues, 58, 319–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hodson, R., Roscigno, V., & Lopez, S. H. (2006). Chaos and the abuse of power: Workplace bullying in organizational interactional context. Work and Occupations, 33(4), 382–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hoel, H., & Cooper, C. L. (2001). Origins of bullying. In N. Tehrani (Ed.), Building a culture of respect: Managing bullying at work. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  56. Hoel, H., & Einarsen, S. (2011). Investigating complaints of bullying and harassment. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Development in theory, research, and practice (2nd ed., pp. 341–357). London/New York: CRC Press – Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
  57. Hoel, H., & McBride, A. (2017). ‘Getting in’, ‘staying in’ and ‘moving on’: Using standards to achieve diversity and inclusion. In A. Arenas, D. Di Marco, L. Munduate, & M. C. Euwema (Eds.), Shaping inclusive workplaces through social dialogue (Vol. 37, pp. 33–51). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hoel, H., Cooper, C. L., & Faragher, B. (2001). The experience of bullying in Great Britain: The impact of organizational status. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 443–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hoel, H., Sheehan, M. J., Cooper, C. L., & Einarsen, S. (2011). Organisational effect of workplace bullying. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Development in theory, research and practice (2nd ed., pp. 129–147). London/New York: CRC Press – Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
  60. Hoel, H., Lewis, D., & Einarsdóttir, A. (2014). The ups and downs of LGBs’ workplace experiences. Manchester: Manchester Business School.Google Scholar
  61. Hoel, H., Lewis, D., & Einarsdóttir, A. (2017). Bullying and harassment of lesbians, gay men and bisexuals employees: Findings from a representative British national study. Public Money and Management, 37, 312–314.Google Scholar
  62. Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. J. (2000). Social identity and self-categorization processes in organizational contexts. The Academy of Management Review, 25, 121–140.  https://doi.org/10.2307/259266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hogh, A., Hoel, H., & Carneiro, I. G. (2011). Bullying and employee turnover among healthcare workers: A three-wave prospective study. Journal of Nursing Management, 19, 742–751.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. House, J. S. (1981). Work stress and social support. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  65. ILO. (2013). Discrimination at work on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity: Results of pilot research. Geneva: International Labour Organization. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/–ed_norm/–relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_221728.pdf
  66. ILO. (2016). Pride at work: A study on discrimination at work on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity in South Africa. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
  67. Jackson, S. (2006). Gender, sexuality and heterosexuality: The complexity (and limits) of heteronormativity. Feminist Theory, 7, 105–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jones, T., Robinson, A., Fevre, R., & Lewis, D. (2011). Workplace assaults in Britain: Understanding the influence of individual and workplace characteristics. British Journal of Criminology, 51, 159–178.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azq064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kenny, C., & Patel, D. (2017). Norms and reform: Legalizing homosexuality improves attitudes. Working paper 465, October 2017. Washington, DC: Centre for Global Development.Google Scholar
  70. Köllen, T. (2013). Bisexuality and diversity management: Addressing the B in LGBT as a relevant ‘sexual orientation’ in the workplace. Journal of Bisexuality, 13, 122–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kreiner, G. E. (2006). Consequences of work-home segmentation or integration: A person-environment fit perspective. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 27, 485–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lee Badgett, M. V. (2014). The economic cost of stigma and the exclusion of LGBT people: A case study of India. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  73. Lewis, D., Hoel, H., & Einarsdóttir, A. (2014, June 26–29). Hard to research and hard to reach: Methodological challenges in exploring bullying, harassment and discrimination with lesbian, gay and bisexual employees. In 13th EURAM conference, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  74. Matthiesen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2010). Bullying in the workplace: Definition, prevalence, antecedents and consequences. International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, 13, 202–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McGuire, G. M. (2007). Intimate work: A typology of the social support that workers provide to their network members. Work and Occupations, 34(2), 125–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674–697.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Minton, S. J., Dahl, T., O’Moore, A. M., & Tuck, D. (2008). An exploratory survey of the experiences of homophobic bullying among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered young people in Ireland. Irish Educational Studies, 27, 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ng, E. S., & Rumens, N. (2017). Diversity and inclusion for LGBT workers: Current issues and new horizons for research. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 34, 109–6120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. (2012). Outcomes of workplace bullying: A meta-analytical review. Work and Stress, 26, 309–332.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2012.734709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. O’Connell, P., Calvert, E., & Watson, D. (2007). Bullying in the workplace: Survey reports, 2007. Dublin: The Economic and Social Research Institute.Google Scholar
  81. Ozturk, M. G. (2011). Exploring the experience of lesbian, gay and bisexual employees in Turkey. Human Relations, 64(8), 1099–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ozturk, M. G., & Tatli, A. (2016). Gender identity inclusion in the workplace: Broadening diversity management research and practice through the case of transgender employees in the UK. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27, 781–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Price, E. (2011). LGBT sexualities in social care research. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.Google Scholar
  85. Ragins, B. (2004). Sexual orientation in the workplace: The unique work and career experiences of gay, lesbian and bisexual workers. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 23, 35–120.Google Scholar
  86. Ragins, B. R. (2008). Disclosure disconnects: Antecedents and consequences of disclosing invisible stigmas across life domains. Academy of Management Review, 33, 194–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ramsey, S., Troth, A., & Branch, S. (2011). Work-place bullying: A group processes framework. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84, 799–816.  https://doi.org/10.1348/2044-8325.002000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rayner, C., & Lewis, D. (2011). Managing workplace bullying: The role of policy. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Development in theory, research and practice (2nd ed., pp. 327–340). London/New York: CRC Press – Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
  89. Reskin, B. F. (2000). The proximate causes of employment discrimination. Contemporary Sociology, 29, 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Röndahl, G., Innala, S., & Carlsson, M. (2002). ‘To hide or not to hide, that is the question’: Lesbians and gay men describe experiences from Nursing Work Environment. Journal of Homosexuality, 52, 211–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Roscigno, V., Lopez, S., & Hodson, R. (2009). Supervisory bullying, status inequalities and organizational context. Social Forces, 87, 1561–1589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rumens, N., & Broomfield, J. (2012). Gay men in the police: Identity disclosure and management issues. Human Resource Management Journal, 22, 283–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Salin, D., & Hoel, H. (2013). Workplace bullying as a gendered phenomenon. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28, 235–251.  https://doi.org/10.1108/02683941311321187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sears, B., & Mallory, C. (2011). Documented evidence of employment discrimination & its effects on LGBT people. Los Angeles: The Williams Institute, University of California.Google Scholar
  95. Sloan, M. M. (2012). Unfair treatment in the workplace and worker Well-being: The case of co-worker support in a service work environment. Work and Occupations, 39(1), 3–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stonewall. (2007). Bullying: Preventing the bullying and harassment of gay employees. London: Stonewall.Google Scholar
  97. Stonewall. (2012). Living together: British attitudes to lesbian, gay and bisexual people in 2012. London: Stonewall.Google Scholar
  98. Stonewall. (2013). Gay and bisexual men’s health survey. London: Stonewall. https://www.stonewall.org.uk/sites/default/files/Gay_and_Bisexual_Men_s_Health_Survey__2013_.pdf
  99. Stonewall. (2016). Stonewall global workplace briefings. London: Stonewall.Google Scholar
  100. Tajfel, H. (1972). Social categorization. English manuscript of ‘La catégorisation sociale’. In S. Moscovici (Ed.), Introduction á la Psychologie Soiale (Vol. 1, pp. 272–302). Paris: Larousse.Google Scholar
  101. Tilcsik, A., Anteby, M., & Knight, C. R. (2015). Concealable stigma and occupational segregation: Towards a theory of gay and lesbian occupations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 60, 446–481.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0001839215576401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. TUC. (2017). The cost of being out at work: LGBT+ workers’ experience of harassment and discrimination. London: Trades Union Congress.Google Scholar
  103. Turner, J.C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P.J., Reicher, S. D., & Whetherellm M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  104. Ullrich, J. (2009). Reconsidering the ‘relative’ in relative ingroup prototypicality. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 299–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vartia, M. (2001). Consequences of workplace bullying with respect to the well-being of its targets and the observers. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment Health, 27, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ward, J., & Winstanley, D. (2003). The absent presence: Negative space within discourse and the construction of minority sexual identity in the workplace. Human Relations, 56, 1255–1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ward, J., & Winstanley, D. (2006). Walking the watch: The UK fire service and its impact on sexual minorities in the workplace. Gender, Work and Organization, 13, 193–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Willis, P. (2012). Witnesses on the periphery: Young lesbian, gay, bisexual and queer employees witnessing homophobic exchanges in Australian workplaces. Human Relations, 65(12), 1589–1610.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726712457795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wright, T. (2008). Lesbian firefighters: Shifting the boundaries between ‘masculinity’ and ‘femininity’. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 12, 103–114.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Yep, G.A. (2003) The violence of heteronormativity in communication studies. Journal of Homosexuality, 45(2), 11–59.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Yip, A. (2008). Researching lesbian, gay and bisexual Christians and Muslims: Some thematic reflections. Sociological Research Online, 13(1).  https://doi.org/10.5153/sro.1660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zapf, D., Escartin, J., Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Vartia, M. (2011). Empirical finds on prevalence and risk groups of bullying in the workplace. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Development in theory, research and practice (2nd ed., pp. 75–105). London/New York: CRC Press – Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.University of PlymouthDevonUK
  3. 3.University of YorkYorkUK

Personalised recommendations