Advertisement

The Evidence Issue and Taking Interventions to Scale: Strengthening the Evidence Base of Workplace Bullying Interventions Through Prevention and Implementation Research

  • Sara Branch
  • Carlo Caponecchia
  • Jane P. Murray
Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbooks of Workplace Bullying, Emotional Abuse and Harassment book series (HWBEAH, volume 3)

Abstract

Having learnt about the prevalence, behaviours and impacts of Workplace Bullying, the field is currently moving to focus more on interventions that prevent and manage the phenomenon. Rather than presenting evidence on particular interventions, this chapter introduces a framework that outlines the role of academics and practitioners in advancing this area of research, arguing that only collaboration and the sharing of expertise and perspectives will enable us to improve the design, delivery and refinement of interventions or programmes. Collaboration and the need for different perspectives are vital due to the complexity of the phenomenon. By focusing on scientific principles, the logic underpinning action is strengthened and will help inform the development of emergent practice. Fortunately, the field of Workplace Bullying can learn the lessons of academics and practitioners in the fields of Prevention Science and Implementation Science and the disciplines of Public Health and Human Services. Paying attention to these lessons and building upon their principles can assist in advancing how we in the field of Workplace Bullying respond to this phenomenon, either through prevention or management. This chapter presents an approach to intervention research, including concepts and principles from the fields of Prevention Science and Implementation Science that will guide both academics and practitioners as we move into the latest frontier of Workplace Bullying research.

References

  1. Agervold, M. (2009). The significance of organizational factors for the incidence of bullying. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50(3), 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashkanasy, N. (2003). Emotions in organizations: A multi-level perspective. In F. Dansereau & F. J. Yammarino (Eds.), Multi-level issues in organizational behavior and strategy (Research in Multi Level Issues, Volume 2) (pp. 9–54). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1475-9144(03)02002-2.
  3. Atkins, M. S., Rusch, D., Mehta, T. G., & Lakind, D. (2016). Future directions for dissemination and implementation science: Aligning ecological theory and public health to close the research to practice gap. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 45(2), 215–226.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1050724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baillien, E., & De Witte, H. (2009). Why is organizational change related to workplace bullying? Role conflict and job insecurity as mediators. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 30(3), 348–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baillien, E., Neyens, I., De Witte, H., & De Cuyper, N. (2009). A qualitative study on the development of workplace bullying: Towards a three way model. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 19, 1–16.  https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bickman, L. (Ed.). (1987). Using program theory in evaluation (New directions for evaluation, no. 33). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  7. Boatman, J. E., & Sinar, E. F. (2011). The path forward to meaningful evidence. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4, 68–71.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01299.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bosworth, K., & Judkins, M. (2014). Tapping into the power of school climate to prevent bullying: One application of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports. Theory Into Practice, 53(4), 300–307.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2014.947224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradshaw, C. (2015). Translating research to practice in bullying prevention. American Psychologist, 70(4), 322–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Branch, S., & Murray, J. (2015). Workplace bullying: Is lack of understanding the reason for inaction? Organizational Dynamics, 44, 287–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Branch, S., Ramsay, S., & Barker, M. (2007). Managers in the firing line: Contributing factors to workplace bullying by staff – An interview study. Journal of Management & Organization, 13, 264–281.Google Scholar
  12. Branch, S., Homel, R., & Freiberg, K. (2013a). Making the developmental system work better for children: Lessons learned implementing an innovative programme. Child & Family Social Work, 18(3).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2012.00845.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Branch, S., Ramsay, S., & Barker, M. (2013b). Workplace bullying, mobbing and general harassment: A review. International Journal of Management Reviews, 15(3), 280–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brekke, J., Ell, K., & Palinkas, L. (2007). Translational science at the National Institute of Mental Health: Can social work take its rightful place? Research on Social Work Practice, 17, 123–133.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731506293693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Briner, R., & Rousseau, D. M. (2011). Evidence-based I–O psychology: Not there yet. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4, 3–22.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01301.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Briner, R. B., Denyer, D., & Rousseau, D. M. (2009). Evidence-based management: Construct clean-up time? Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(4), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Bukspan, E. (2004). A personal view: Bullying at work in France. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32(3), 397–406.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03069880410001723585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burke, J. P., & Gitlin, L. N. (2012). The issue is – How do we change practice when we have the evidence? American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66, e85–e88.  https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2012.004432.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Butterfoss, F., & Kegler, M. (2009). The Community Coalition Action Theory. In R. DiClemente, R. Crosby, & M. Kegler (Eds.), Emerging theories in health promotion practice and research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  21. Caplan, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  22. Caponecchia, C., & Wyatt, A. (2011). Preventing workplace bullying: An evidence based guide for managers and employees. Sydney: Allen & Unwin (and Routledge internationally).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Catano, V. M. (2011). Evidence-based I–O psychology: Lessons from clinical psychology. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4, 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clark, F., Park, D. J., & Burke, J. P. (2013). Dissemination: Bringing translational research to completion. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(2), 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cortina, L. (2008). Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 55–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crowley, D. M., Coffman, D. L., Feinberg, M. E., Greenberg, M. T., & Spoth, R. L. (2014). Evaluating the impact of implementation factors on family-based prevention programming: Methods for strengthening causal inference. Prevention Science, 15, 246–255.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-012-0352-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. D’Agostino, R. B., & Kwan, H. (1995). Measuring effectiveness: What to expect without a randomized control group. Medical Care, 33, AS95–AS105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Doll, B., & Yoon, J. (2010). The current status of youth prevention science. In B. Doll, W. Pfohl, & J. Yoon (Eds.), Handbook of youth prevention science (pp. 1–18). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Durlak, J. (2015). Studying program implementation is not easy but it is essential. Prevention Science, 16, 1123–1127.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-015-0606-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dusenbury, L., & Hansen, W. B. (2004). Pursuing the course from research to practice. Prevention Science, 5(1), 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eccles, M., & Mittman, B. (2006). Welcome to implementation science. Implementation Science, 1(1).  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-1-1.
  32. Einarsdóttir, A., Hoel, H., & Lewis, D. (2015). ‘It’s nothing personal’: Anti-homosexuality in the British workplace. Sociology, 49(6), 1183–1199.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038515582160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Einarsen, S. (1999). The nature and causes of bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower, 20(1/2), 16–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, C. (Eds.). (2011). Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). London: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  35. Escartin, J. (2016). Insights into workplace bullying: Psychosocial drivers and effective interventions. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 9, 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Felson, R. B., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1993). Aggression and violence: Social interactionists’ perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ferris, P. (2004). A preliminary typology of organisational response to allegations of workplace bullying: See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32(3), 389–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blase, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication #231).Google Scholar
  39. Fixsen, D., Blase, K., & Van Dyke, M. (2011). Mobilizing communities for implementing evidence-based youth violence prevention programming: A commentary. American Journal of Community Psychology, 48, 133–137.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9410-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Flay, B., Biglan, A., Boruch, R., Castro, F., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., … Ji, P. (2005). Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prevention Science, 6(3), 151–175.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-005-5553-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fox, S., & Stallworth, L. (2005). Racial/ethnic bullying: Exploring links between bullying and racism in the US workforce. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 438–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Funnell, S., & Rogers, P. (2011). Purposeful program theory: Effective use of theories of change and logic models. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  43. Gamero, N., Gonzalez-Roma, V., & Peiro, J. (2008). The influence of intra-team conflict on work teams’ affective climate: A longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81, 47–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Giesen, F., Searle, A., & Sawyer, M. (2007). Identifying and implementing prevention programmes for childhood mental health problems. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 43(12), 785–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Glasgow, R. E. (2003). Translating research to practice: Lessons learned, areas for improvement, and future directions. Diabetes Care, 26, 2451–2456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Glasgow, R. E., & Emmons, K. M. (2007). How can we increase translation of research into practice? Types of evidence needed. Annual Review of Public Health, 28, 413–433.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Glasgow, R. E., Lichtenstein, E., & Marcus, A. C. (2003). Why don’t we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1261–1267.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.8.1261.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Glasø, L., Vie, T., Holmdal, G., & Einarsen, S. (2011). An application of affective events theory to workplace bullying: The role of emotions, trait anxiety, and trait anger. European Psychologist, 16(3), 198–208.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gottfredson, D. C., Cook, T. D., Gardner, F. E., Gorman-Smith, D., Howe, G. W., Sandler, I. N., & Zafft, K. M. (2015). Standards of evidence for efficacy, effectiveness, and scale-up research in prevention science: Next generation. Prevention Science, 16, 893–926.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-015-0555-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Guzzo, R. A. (2011). The universe of evidence-based I–O psychology is expanding. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4, 65–67.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01298.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hage, S., Romano, J., Conyne, R., Kenny, M., Matthews, C., Schwartz, J., & Waldo, M. (2007). Best practice guidelines on prevention practice, research, training, and social advocacy for psychologists. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(4), 493–566.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000006291411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hauge, L., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2009). Individual and situational predictors of workplace bullying: Why do perpetrators engage in the bullying of others? Work & Stress, 23(4), 349–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hawkins, D., Catalano, R., & Arthur, M. (2002). Promoting science-based prevention in communities. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 951–976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hernandez, M., & Hodges, S. (2003). Building upon the theory of change for systems of care. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11(1), 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hodgins, M., MacCurtain, S., & Mannix-McNamara, P. (2014). Workplace bullying and incivility: A systematic review of interventions. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 7(1), 54–72.  https://doi.org/10.1108/IJWHM-08-2013-0030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoel, H., & Einarsen, S. (2010). Shortcomings of antibullying regulations: The case of Sweden. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 19(1), 30–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hoel, H., & Giga, S. (2006). Destructive interpersonal conflict in the workplace: The effectiveness of management interventions. Manchester: Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  58. Hoel, H., Sheehan, M., Cooper, C., & Einarsen, S. (2011). Organisational effects of workplace bullying. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research, and practice (2nd ed., pp. 129–148). London: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  59. Høgh, A., Mikkelsen, E., & Hansen, A. (2011). Individual consequences of workplace bullying/mobbing. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research, and practice (2nd ed., pp. 107–128). London: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  60. Homel, R., & Thomsen, L. (2017). Developmental crime prevention. In N. Tilley & A. Sidebottom (Eds.), Handbook of crime prevention and community safety (2nd ed., pp. 57–86). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Homel, R., Freiberg, K., & Branch, S. (2015). CREATE-ing capacity to take developmental crime prevention to scale: A community-based approach within a national framework. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 48(3), 367–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hutchinson, M., Vickers, M., Jackson, D., & Wilkes, L. (2006). “Like wolves in a pack”: Stories of predatory alliances of bullies in nursing. Journal of Management and Organisation, 12(3), 235–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jenkins, M. (2011). Practice note: Is mediation suitable for complaints of workplace bullying? Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 29(1), 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Karanika-Murray, M., Biron, C., & Øystein Saksvik, P. (2016). Organizational health interventions: Advances in evaluation methodology. Stress and Health, 32, 255–257.  https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2708.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Keashly, L., & Neuman, J. (2009). Building constructive communication climate: The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Workplace Stress and Aggression Project. In P. Lutgen-Sandvik & B. Sypher (Eds.), The destructive side of organizational communication: Processes, consequences and constructive ways of organizing (pp. 339–362). New York: Routledge/LEA.Google Scholar
  66. Keast, R., Brown, K., & Mandell, M. (2007). Getting the right mix: Unpacking integration meanings and strategies. International Public Management Journal, 10(1), 9–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lawler, E. E. (2007). Why HR practices are not evidence-based. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1033–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lewin, K. (1947). Frontiers in group dynamics: Concept, method and reality in social science; social equilibria and social change. Human Relations, 1(1), 5–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewis, D., & Gunn, R. (2007). Workplace bullying in the public sector: Understanding the racial dimension. Public Administration, 83(3), 641–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lutgen-Sandvik, P. (2006). Take this job and … : Quitting and other forms of resistance to workplace bullying. Communication Monographs, 73(4), 406–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Magley, V., Hulin, C., Fitzgerald, L., & DeNardo, M. (1999). Outcomes of self-labeling sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(3), 390–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McCarthy, P., Henderson, M., Sheehan, M., & Barker, M. (2002). Workplace bullying: Its management and prevention. In Australian master OHS and environment guide 2003 (pp. 519–546). Sydney: CCH Australia Limited.Google Scholar
  73. Milat, A., King, L., Bauman, A., & Redman, S. (2012). The concept of scalability: Increasing the scale and potential adoption of health promotion interventions into policy and practice. Health Promotion International, 28(3), 285–298.  https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dar097.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Mildon, R., & Shlonsky, A. (2011). Bridge over troubled water: Using implementation science to facilitate effective services in child welfare. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 753–756.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mrazek, P. J., & Haggerty, R. J. (1994). Institute of Medicine (IOM), Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  76. Namie, G., & Lutgen-Sandvik, P. (2010). Active and passive accomplices: The communal character of workplace bullying. International Journal of Communication, 4, 343–373.Google Scholar
  77. Namie, G., & Namie, R. (2009). U.S. Workplace bullying: Some basic considerations and consultation interventions. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61(3), 202–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Paull, M., Omari, M., & Standen, P. (2012). When is a bystander not a bystander? A typology of the roles of bystanders in workplace bullying. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 50, 351–366.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7941.2012.00027.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Plovnick, M., Fry, R., & Rubin, I. (1975). New developments in OD technology: Programmed team development. Training and Development Journal, 29(4), 19–25.Google Scholar
  80. Reay, T., Berta, W., & Kohn, M. (2009). What’s the evidence on evidence-based management? Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(4), 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Roscigno, V., Lopez, S., & Hodson, R. (2009). Supervisory bullying, status inequalities and organizational context. Social Forces, 87(3), 1561–1589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rousseau, D. M., Manning, J., & Denyer, D. (2008). Evidence in management and organization science: Assembling the field’s full weight of scientific knowledge through synthesis. Academy of Management Annals, 2, 475–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Saam, N. (2010). Interventions in workplace bullying: A multilevel approach. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 19(1), 51–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Salin, D. (2003a). Bullying and organisational politics in competitive and rapidly changing work environments. International Journal of Management and Decision Making, 4(1), 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Salin, D. (2003b). Ways of explaining workplace bullying: A review of enabling, motivating, and precipitating structures and processes in the work environment. Human Relations, 56(10), 1213–1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Samson, L., & Stephenson, M. (2004). Local learning groups and clusters: The potential of working in an integrated team with groups of schools. In M. Blamires & J. Moore (Eds.), Support services and mainstream schools: A guide for working together (pp. 99–115). London: David Fulton.Google Scholar
  87. Sanson, A., Havighurst, S., & Zubrick, S. (2011). The science of prevention for children and youth. Australian Review of Public Affairs, 10(1), 79–93.Google Scholar
  88. Schorr, L., & Schorr, D. (1988). Within our reach: Breaking the cycle of disadvantage. New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday.Google Scholar
  89. Stagg, S. J., & Sheridan, D. (2010). Effectiveness of bullying and violence prevention programs: A systematic review. American Association of Industrial Nurses Journal, 58(10), 419–424.  https://doi.org/10.3928/08910162-20100916-02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stormont, M., Reinke, W., & Herman, K. (2010). Introduction to the special issue: Using prevention science to address mental health issues in schools. Psychology in the Schools, 47(1), 1–3.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vartia, M., & Leka, S. (2011). Interventions for the prevention and management of bullying at work. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Developments in theory, research, and practice (2nd ed., pp. 359–380). London: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  92. Wandersman, A., Duffy, J., Flaspohler, P., Noonan, R., Lubell, K., Stillman, L., … Saul, J. (2008). Bridging the gap between prevention research and practice: The interactive systems framework for dissemination and implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3–4), 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Weiss, H., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. In B. Staw & L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 18, pp. 1–74). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Branch
    • 1
  • Carlo Caponecchia
    • 2
  • Jane P. Murray
    • 3
  1. 1.Griffith Criminology InstituteGriffith UniversityBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.School of AviationUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Bond UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations