Advertisement

Workplace Bullying and Cyberbullying Scales: An Overview

  • Jordi EscartínEmail author
  • Ivana Vranjes
  • Elfi Baillien
  • Guy Notelaers
Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbooks of Workplace Bullying, Emotional Abuse and Harassment book series (HWBEAH, volume 1)

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of workplace bullying and cyberbullying scales currently used in quantitative research and highlights their characteristics, main strengths and weaknesses. Using well-defined inclusion (i.e. reported in the international scientific literature, validated or based on validated scales, and availability of items) and exclusion criteria (i.e. reported in unpublished manuscripts, reviews, guidelines, commentaries, abstracts and conference proceedings), a total of 47 validated scales on workplace bullying and cyberbullying were examined. These scales were developed to tap workplace (cyber)bullying (a) from the target’s perspective, (b) from the actor’s perspective, (c) within specific professional and occupational contexts and (d) within different geographical and cultural contexts (i.e. adaptations of the most widely used workplace bullying scale—the Negative Acts Questionnaire, NAQ). A first important conclusion from our review is that research has used great heterogeneity in quantitative scales measuring the problem which, although could be valuable in specific contexts, challenges the comparability of the results. Alternatively, we see some dominantly applied scales of which we question ourselves whether these scales are in fact always suitable for assessing (cyber)bullying in a certain context without a thorough validation. A second conclusion is that several scales were developed based on different perspectives on item construction and validity. Therefore, we outline a number of ways to further improve and standardize the methodology applied in designing scales to assess workplace (cyber)bullying (i.e. the need to capture both the state and the process of the phenomenon, scales on bystanders). Finally, this chapter concludes with a call for more tightly controlled and methodologically sophisticated studies, paying greater attention to being sensitive and careful in the inference of causality.

References

  1. Agervold, M., & Mikkelsen, E. G. (2004). Relationships between bullying, psychosocial work environment and individual stress reactions. Work & Stress, 18, 336–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aquino, K., & Bradfield, M. (2000). Perceived victimization in the workplace: The role of situational factors and victim characteristics. Organizational Science, 11, 525–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baillien, E., Neyens, I., De Witte, H., & De Cuyper, N. (2009). Towards a three way model of workplace bullying: A qualitative study. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 19, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baillien, E., Escartín, J., Gross, C., & Zapf, D. (2017). Towards a conceptual and empirical differentiation between workplace bullying and interpersonal conflict. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, 870–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barlett, C. P., Gentile, D. A., Anderson, C. A., Suzuki, K., Sakamoto, A., Yamaoka, A., & Katsura, R. (2014). Cross-cultural differences in cyberbullying behavior: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 300–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron, R. A., Neumann, J. H., & Geddes, D. (1999). Social and personal determinants of workplace aggression: Evidence for the impact of perceived justice and the type A behavior pattern. Aggressive Behaviour, 25, 281–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bjorkqvist, K., Osterman, K., & Hjelt-Back, M. (1992). The work harassment scale. Vaasa: Abo Akademi University.Google Scholar
  8. Buchanan, N. T., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2008). Effects of racial and sexual harassment on work and the psychological well-being of African American women. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(2), 137–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56(2), 81–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carter, M., Thompson, N., Crampton, P., Morrow, G., Burford, B., Gray, C., & Illing, J. (2013). Workplace bullying in the UK NHS: A questionnaire and interview study on prevalence, impact and barriers to reporting. British Management Journal Open, 3(6), e002628.Google Scholar
  11. Conway, P. M., Hogh, A., Nabe-Nielsen, K., Grynderup, M. B., Rugulies, R. P., & Hansen, Å. M. (2017, May 17–20). When do negative acts reflect experienced workplace bullying? Identifying optimal cut-off points on the Short-Negative Act Questionnaire. Paper presented at the XVIII European Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology, DublinGoogle Scholar
  12. Coyne, I., Smith-Lee Chong, P., Seigne, E., & Randall, P. (2003). Self and peer nominations of bullying: An analysis of incident rates, individual differences, and perceptions of the working environment. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12, 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coyne, I., Farley, S., Axtell, C., Sprigg, C., Best, L., & Kwok, O. (2017). Understanding the relationship between experiencing workplace cyberbullying, employee mental strain and job satisfaction: A disempowerment approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28, 945–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2012). Clarifying my world: Identity work in the context of workplace bullying. The Qualitative Report, 17(6), 1–29.Google Scholar
  15. D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2013). Navigating the extended reach: Target experiences of cyberbullying at work. Information and Organization, 23(4), 324–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2018). Target experiences of workplace bullying on online labour markets: Uncovering the nuances of resilience. Employee Relations, 40(1), 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. D’Cruz, P., Paull, M., Omari, M., & Guneri-Cangarli, B. (2016). Target experiences of workplace bullying: Insights from Australia, India and Turkey. Employee Relations, 38(5), 805–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dilek, Y., & Aytolan, Y. (2008). Development and psychometric evaluation of workplace psychologically violent behaviours instrument. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 1361–1370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dollard, M. F., Dormann, C., Tuckey, M. R., & Escartín, J. (2017). Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) and enacted PSC for workplace bullying and psychological health problem reduction. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, 844–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dooley, J. J., Pyzalski, J., & Cross, D. S. (2009). Cyberbullying versus face-to-face bullying: A theoretical and conceptual review. Journal of Psychology, 217, 182–188.Google Scholar
  21. Einarsen, S., & Raknes, B. I. (1997). Harassment in the workplace and the victimization of men. Violence and Victims, 12, 247–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Notelaers, G. (2009). Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Work & Stress, 23, 24–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, C. L. (2011). The concept of bullying at work: The European tradition. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and harassment in the workplace. Developments in theory, research and practice (pp. 3–39). London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  24. Escartín, J., Rodríguez-Carballeira, Á., Gómez-Benito, J., & Zapf, D. (2010). Development and validation of the workplace bullying scale EAPA-T. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 10, 519–539.Google Scholar
  25. Escartín, J., Salin, D., & Rodríguez-Carballeira, A. (2011a). Conceptualizations of workplace bullying: Gendered rather than gender-neutral? Journal of Personnel Psychology, 10(4), 157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Escartín, J., Zapf, D., Arrieta, C., & Rodríguez-Carballeira, A. (2011b). Worker’s perception of workplace bullying: A cross-cultural study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(2), 178–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Escartín, J., Sora, B., Rodríguez-Muñoz, A., & Rodríguez-Carballeira, Á. (2012). Adaptación y validación de la versión española de la Escala de Conductas Negativas en el Trabajo realizadas por acosadores: NAQ-Perpetrators. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 28, 157–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Escartín, J., Ceja, L., Navarro, J., & Zapf, D. (2013). Modelling workplace bullying behaviours using catastrophe theory. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 17, 493–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Escartín, J., Monzani, L., Leong, F., & Rodríguez-Carballeira, Á. (2017). A reduced form of the workplace bullying scale – the EAPA-TR: A useful instrument for daily diary and experience sampling studies. Work & Stress, 31, 42–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4(3), 272–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Farley, S., Coyne, I., Axtell, C., & Sprigg, C. (2016). Design, development and validation of a workplace cyberbullying measure, the WCM. Work & Stress, 30, 293–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fitzgerald, L. F., Shullman, S. L., Bailey, N., Richards, M., Swecker, J., Gold, Y., Ormerod, A. J., & Weitzman, L. (1988). The dimensions and extent of sexual harassment in higher education and the workplace. Journal of Vocutional Behavior, 32, 152–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fornés, J., Martínez-Abascal, M. A., & García de la Banda, G. (2008). Análisis factorial del cuestionario de Hostigamiento Psicológico en El Trabajo en Profesionales de Enfermería. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 8, 267–283.Google Scholar
  35. Forrest, S., Eatough, V., & Shevlin, M. (2005). Measuring adult indirect aggression: The development and psychometric assessment of the indirect aggression scales. Aggressive Behaviour, 31, 84–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Forssell, R. (2016). Exploring cyberbullying and face-to-face bullying in working life – Prevalence, targets and expressions. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 454–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fox, S., & Stallworth, L. E. (2005). Racial/ethnic bullying: Exploring links between bullying and racism in the US workplace. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 438–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giorgi, G., Arenas, A., & León-Pérez, J. M. (2011). An operative measure of workplace bullying: The Negative Acts Questionnaire across Italian companies. Industrial Health, 49, 686–695.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. González-Trijueque, D., & Graña, J. L. (2013). Adaptación psicomètrica de una versión española del cuestionario de conductas negativas revisado (NAQ-R). Psicopatología Clínica, Legal y Forense, 13, 7–28.Google Scholar
  40. Gupta, R., Bakhshi, A., & Einarsen, S. (2017). Investigating workplace bullying in India: Psychometric properties, validity, and cutoff scores of Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. SAGE Open, 7, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hansen, Å. M., Hogh, A., Persson, R., Karlson, B., Garde, A. H., & Ørbæk, P. (2006). Bullying at work, health outcomes, and physiological stress response. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 63–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harrington, S., Rayner, C., & Warren, S. (2012). Too hot to handle? Trust and human resource practitioners’ implementation of anti-bullying policy. Human Resource Management Journal, 22(4), 392–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hauge, L. J., Skogstad, A., & Einarsen, S. (2009). Individual and situational predictors of workplace bullying: Why do perpetrators engage in the bullying of others. Work & Stress, 23, 349–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hershcovis, M. S. (2011). Incivility, social undermining, bullying…Oh my! A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 499–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoel, H., Lewis, D., Einarsdottir, A., & Notelaers, G. (2012, June 12–15 ). Sexual identities and the risk of experiencing workplace bullying and harassment: Evidence from a nationwide, representative UK sample. Paper presented at the 8th International Conference on Workplace Bullying and Harassment, University of Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  46. Hutchinson, M., Wilkes, L., Vickers, M., & Jackson, D. (2008). The development and validation of a bullying inventory for the nursing workplace. Nurse Researcher, 15, 19–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Joinson, A. N. (2001). Self-disclosure in computer-mediated communication: The role of self-awareness and visual anonymity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 177–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jönsson, S., Muhonen, T., Forssell, R. C., & Bäckström, M. (2017). Assessing exposure to bullying through digital devices in working life: Two versions of a Cyberbullying Questionnaire (CBQ). Psychology, 8, 477–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kakoulakis, C., Galanakis, M., Bakoula-Tzoumaka, C., Darvyri, P., Chrousos, P. G., & Darviri, C. (2015). Validation of the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ) in a sample of Greek teachers. Psychology, 6, 63–74.Google Scholar
  50. Kankaraš, M., Moors, G., & Vermunt, J. K. (2010). Testing for measurement invariance with latent class analysis. In E. Davidov, P. Schmidt, & J. Billiet (Eds.), Cross-cultural analysis: Methods and applications (pp. 359–384). New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  51. Keashly, L., Trott, V., & MacLean, L. (1994). Abusive behavior in the workplace: A preliminary investigation. Violence and Victims, 9, 341–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. King, M. F., & Bruner, G. C. (2000). Social desirability bias: A neglected aspect of validity testing. Psychology and Marketing, 17, 79–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Langos, C. (2012). Cyberbullying: The challenge to define. Cyberpsychology, behavior, and Social Networking, 15, 285–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lee, R. T., & Brotheridge, C. M. (2006). When prey turns predatory: Workplace bullying as a predictor of counteraggression/bullying, coping, and well-being. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15, 352–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lee, M., Kim, H., Shin, D., & Lee, S. (2016). Reliability and validity of the Workplace Harassment Questionnaire for Korean finance and service workers. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 28, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leymann, H. (1990). Handbok för användning av LIPT-formuläret för kartläggning av risker för psykologisk vald (Manual of the LIPT questionnaire for assessing the risk of psychological violence at work). Stockholm: Violen.Google Scholar
  57. Liu, Y., Millsap, R. E., West, S. G., Tein, J.-Y., Tanaka, R., & Grimm, K. J. (2017). Testing measurement invariance in longitudinal data with ordered-categorical measures. Psychological Methods, 22, 486–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. MacIntosh, J., Wuest, J., Gray, M. M., & Aldous, S. (2010). Effects of workplace bullying on how women work. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 32(7), 910–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Magidson, J., & Vermunt, J. K. (2004). Latent class models. In D. Kaplan (Ed.), The Sage handbook for quantitative methodology (pp. 175–198). Thousand Oakes: Sage.Google Scholar
  60. McCormack, D., Casimir, G., Djurkovic, N., & Yang, L. (2006). The currant effects of workplace bullying, satisfaction with supervisor, and satisfaction with co-workers on affective commitment among schoolteachers in China. International Journal of Conflict Management, 17, 316–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mick, D. G. (1996). Are studies of dark side variables confounded by socially desirable responding? The case of materialism. Journal of Consumer Research, 23, 106–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Millan, A., Diaferia, L., Acosta, M., & D’Aubeterre, M. E. (2016). Comparativo de las propiedades psicométricas del NAQ-R y del LIPT-60 en trabajadores venezolanos. Revista CES Psicología, 9, 40–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Moreno-Jiménez, B., Rodríguez-Muñoz, A., Martínez, M., & Gálvez, M. (2007). Assessing workplace bullying: Spanish validation of a reduced version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 10, 449–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Muthén, B., & Asparouhov, T. (2017). Recent methods for the study of measurement invariance with many groups: Alignment and random effects. Sociological Methods & Research.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124117701488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nam, W., Kim, J. W., Kim, Y. K., Koo, J. W., & Park, C. Y. (2010). The reliability and validity of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) for nurses for the assessment of workplace bullying. Korean Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 22, 129–139.Google Scholar
  66. Namie, G., & Lutgen-Sandvik, P. (2010). Active and passive accomplices: The communal character of workplace bullying. International Journal of Communication, 4, 343–373.Google Scholar
  67. Nielsen, M. B. (2009). Methodological issues in research on workplace bullying. (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation), University of Bergen, Bergen.Google Scholar
  68. Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. (2013). Can observations of workplace bullying really make you depressed? A response to Emdad et al. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 86, 717–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nielsen, M. B., Matthiesen, S. B., & Einarsen, S. (2010). The impact of methodological moderators on prevalence rates of workplace bullying. A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 955–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Nielsen, M. B., Notelaers, G., & Einarsen, S. (2011). Measuring exposure to workplace bullying. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Workplace bullying: Development in theory, research and practice (pp. 149–177). London/New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  71. Notelaers, G. (2011). Workplace bullying: A risk control perspective. (Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation), University of Bergen, Bergen.Google Scholar
  72. Notelaers, G., & Einarsen, S. (2013). The world turns at 33 and 45: Defining simple cutoff scores for the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised in a representative sample. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22, 670–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Notelaers, G., Vermunt, J. K., De Witte, H., Einarsen, S., & Van Veldhoven, M. (2005). Measuring psychosocial work hazards in a multilingual environment. Bullying at work: A cross-cultural perspective from Belgium. The 6th Annual conference of the European academy of occupational health psychology proceedings, pp. 335–343.Google Scholar
  74. Notelaers, G., De Witte, H., Vermunt, J. K., & Einarsen, S. (2006a). Pesten op het werk, gewikt en gewogen: Een latente klassen benadering op basis van de negatieve Acts-vragenlijst (How to measure bullying at work? A latent class analysis of the Negative Acts Questionnaire). Gedrag en Organisatie, 19, 149–160.Google Scholar
  75. Notelaers, G., Einarsen, S., De Witte, H., & Vermunt, J. K. (2006b). Measuring exposure to bullying at work: The validity and advantages of the latent class cluster approach. Work & Stress, 20, 288–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Notelaers, G., Paas, L., & Einarsen, S. (2011, May 25–27). Unraveling the process of workplace bullying. Paper presented at the 15th European Conference on Work and Organizational Psychology, Maastricht.Google Scholar
  77. Notelaers, G., Hoel, H., Van der Heijden, B., & Einarsen, S. (2018). Measuring bullying at work with the short-negative acts questionnaire: identification of targets and criterion validity, Work & Stress,  https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2018.1457736.
  78. Notelaers, G., Van der Heijden, B., Guenter, H., Nielsen, M. B., & Einarsen, S. V. (2018). Do interpersonal conflict, aggression and bullying at the workplace overlap? A latent class modeling approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(1743).  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01743.
  79. O’Donnell, S. M., & MacIntosh, J. A. (2016). Gender and workplace bullying: Men’s experiences of surviving bullying at work. Qualitative Health Research, 26(3), 351–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ölafsson, R. F., & Jóhannsdóttir, H. L. (2004). Coping with bullying in the workplace: The effect of gender, age and type of bullying. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 32, 319–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Parkins, I. S., Fishbein, H. D., & Ritchey, P. N. (2006). The influence of personality on workplace bullying and discrimination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 2554–2577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Paull, M., Omari, M., & Standen, P. (2012). When is a bystander not a bystander? A typology of the roles of bystanders in workplace bullying. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 50, 351–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Perminiene, M., & Notelaers, G. (2015, May 20–23 ). Measuring workplace bullying in Lithuania: Psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Paper presented at the 17th European Conference on Work and Organizational Psychology, Oslo.Google Scholar
  84. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Privitera, C., & Campbell, M. A. (2009). Cyberbullying: The new face of workplace bullying? Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12, 395–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rai, A., & Agarwal, U. A. (2017). Exploring nature of workplace bullying and psychometric properties of Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) in Indian organizations. Journal of Indian Business Research, 9(3), 229–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Richman, W. L., Kiesler, S., Weisband, S., & Drasgow, F. (1999). A meta-analytic study of social desirability distortion in computer-administered questionnaires, traditional questionnaires, and interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 754–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rodríguez-Carballeira, A., Escartín, J., Visauta, B., Porrúa, C., & Martín-Peña, J. (2010). Categorization and hierarchy of workplace bullying strategies: A Delphi survey. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13, 297–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rodriguez-Muñoz, A., Moreno, J. B., Baillien, E., Sanz, V. A., & Moreno, L. Y. (2012). The bullied who bullies: The reciprocal relationship between victim and aggressor in workplace bullying situations. Psicothema, 24, 358–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rodríguez-Muñoz, A., Antino, M., & Sanz-Vergel, A. I. (2017). Cross-domain consequences of workplace bullying: A multi-source daily diary study. Work and Stress, 31, 297–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rospenda, K. M., & Richman, J. A. (2004). The factor structure of generalized workplace harassment. Violence and Victims, 19, 221–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Salin, D. (2001). Prevalence and forms of bullying among business professionals: A comparison of two different strategies for measuring bullying. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Salin, D., & Notelaers, G. (2018). The effects of workplace bullying on witnesses: Violation of the psychological contract as an explanatory mechanism? International Journal of Human Resource Management.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2018.1443964.
  94. Salin, D., et al. (2018a). Prevention of and interventions in workplace bullying: A global study of human resource professionals’ reflections on preferred action. International Journal of Human Resource Management.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2018.1460857.
  95. Salin, D., et al. (2018b). Workplace bullying across the globe: A cross-cultural comparison. Personnel Review.  https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-03-2017-0092.
  96. Shapka, J. D., Onditi, H. Z., Collie, R. J., & Lapidot-Lefler, N. (2017). Cyberbullying and cybervictimization within a cross-cultural context: A study of Canadian and Tanzanian adolescents. Child Development, 89(1), 89–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Simons, S. R., Stark, R. B., & DeMarco, R. F. (2011). A new, four-item instrument to measure workplace bullying. Research in Nursing & Health, 34, 132–140.Google Scholar
  98. Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2005). The stressor-emotion model of counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). In S. Fox & P. E. Spector (Eds.), Counterproductive work behaviour: Investigations of actors and targets. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  99. Sprigg, C., Axtell, C., Coyne, I., & Farley, S. (2012). Punched from the Screen: Cyberbullying in the Workplace. Paper presented as part of the ESRC festival of social Science, Sheffield.Google Scholar
  100. Takaki, J., Tsutsumi, A., Fujii, Y., Taniguchi, T., Hirokawa, K., Hibino, Y., Lemmer, R. J., Nashiwa, H., Wang, D., & Ogino, K. (2010). Assessment of workplace bullying and harassment: Reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational Health, 52, 74–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Trochim, W. (2000). The research methods knowledge base (2nd ed.). Cincinnati: Atomic Dog Publishing.Google Scholar
  102. Tsuno, K., Kawakami, N., Inoue, A., & Abe, K. (2010). Measuring workplace bullying: Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the negative acts questionnaire. Journal of Occupational Health, 52, 216–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Van de Vijver, F. J., & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research (Vol. 1). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  104. Van de Vliert, E. (2010). Moving bullies and victims up on conflict researchers’ waiting lists. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 3, 87–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Viterbo, I. S., de Aquino, E. M., & de Mato, I. C. (2016). Psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire for the detection of workplace bullying: An evaluation of the instrument with a sample of state health care workers. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Ocupacional, 42, 1–9.Google Scholar
  107. Vranjes, I., Baillien, E., Vandebosch, H., Erreygers, S., & De Witte, H. (2017). When workplace bullying goes online: Construction and validation of the Inventory of Cyberbullying Acts at Work (ICA-W). European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 27, 28–39.Google Scholar
  108. Vukelic, M., Cizmic, S., Petrovic, I. B., Tenjovic, L., & Giorgi, G. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire – Revised. Psihologija, 48, 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Waschgler, K., Ruiz-Hernández, J. A., Llor-Esteban, B., & Jiménez-Barbero, J. A. (2013). Vertical and lateral workplace bullying in nursing: Development of the hospital aggressive behaviour scale. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28, 2389–2412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Widaman, K. F., Ferrer, E., & Conger, R. D. (2010). Factorial invariance within longitudinal structural equation models: Measuring the same construct across time. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 10–18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Willness, C. R., Steel, P., & Lee, K. (2007). A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of workplace sexual harassment. Personnel Psychology, 60(1), 127–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zapf, D., Knortz, C., & Kulla, M. (1996). On the relationship between mobbing factors and job content, social work environment, and health outcomes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5, 215–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zapf, D., Escartín, J., Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Vartia, M. (2011). Empirical findings on prevalence and risk groups of bullying in the workplace. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Workplace bullying: Developments in theory, research and practice (pp. 75–105). London/New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  114. Zerbe, W. J., & Paulhus, D. L. (1987). Socially desirable responding in organizational behavior: A reconception. Academy of Management Review, 12, 250–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordi Escartín
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ivana Vranjes
    • 2
  • Elfi Baillien
    • 3
  • Guy Notelaers
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative PsychologyUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Occupational & Organizational Psychology and Professional LearningKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Work and Organization StudiesKU LeuvenBrusselsBelgium
  4. 4.Department of Psychosocial ScienceUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations