Metrology pp 1-29 | Cite as

Cylindrical Gear Metrology

  • Kang NiEmail author
  • Yue Peng
  • Dirk Stöbener
  • Gert Goch
Living reference work entry
Part of the Precision Manufacturing book series (PRECISION)


This chapter presents the basic principles and techniques for measuring the geometrical features of cylindrical gears. The mathematical models for nominal cylindrical gear geometry are given in a two-dimensional (2D) space and extended to a three-dimensional (3D) space. The geometric parameters for assessing the conformance of gear design and manufacturing are highlighted based on the current international standards. Conventional gear inspections by tactile measuring systems such as gear-measuring instruments (GMIs) and coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) are discussed in detail, including measuring strategies and evaluations of “raw” spatial data sets, methods of calibrating gear-measuring systems, and the estimation of measurement uncertainty. Emerging technologies including optical measuring systems and areal evaluation methods are introduced as part of future cylindrical gear metrology.


Involute geometry Flank modifications Measuring principles Instrument calibration Artifacts Uncertainty Gear standards Optical sensors Areal evaluation Virtual CMM 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Precision MetrologyUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotteUSA
  2. 2.Bremen Institute for Measurement, Automation and Quality Science (BIMAQ)University of BremenBremenGermany
  3. 3.Research and DevelopmentThe Timken CompanyNorth CantonUSA

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