Always Alert, Always Agile: The Importance of Locally Researching Innovations and Interventions in Indigenous Learning Communities

  • Zanette Johnson
  • Sharon Nelson-Barber
Living reference work entry


When interventions that work for the general population negatively affect Indigenous communities, educational research is being misapplied. A case example from Diné (Navajo) school contexts points out how the research-based “best practice” of comprehensive school reform (CSR) limited learning for Diné students and teachers. A contrasting example based in Hawai‘i presents another school’s quest to go beyond generalized research and enact locally tested strategies that were culturally compatible. Unexamined use of research-based interventions can lead to unimpressive outcomes for Indigenous learners and, as seen in the Diné case example, may be actively counterproductive by inhibiting achievement and discouraging deeper learning experiences. Indigenous-serving educational programs are encouraged to build their research capacity and to establish an internal values-aligned system for empirical research that will iteratively inform program development and make it possible to locally evaluate outcomes. Innovative strategies and interventions may then be specifically adapted and tailored over time, to increase their effectiveness within each distinctive Indigenous learning context.


Indigenous learning Research-based educational interventions Case examples Community-based research Culture-based education 



Preparation of this chapter was supported in part by a grant from the US Department of Education (S283B120006) to WestEd. The findings and opinions expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agency. All references to individuals are anonymous and any similarities reminiscent of known individuals are coincidental. Focusing on Indigenous community adaptation, this chapter builds on two earlier articles: Nelson-Barber, S. & Johnson, Z. (2016). Acknowledging the perils of “best practices” in an Indigenous community. In Contemporary Educational Psychology, Special Issue on Indigenous Issues in Education and Research: Looking forward, 47, 44–50; and Nelson-Barber, S. & Johnson, Z. (Forthcoming), Raising the standard for testing research-based interventions in Indigenous learning communities. In International Review of Education, Special Issue on Indigenous knowledges and learning: Vital contributions towards sustainability.


  1. Aladjem D, Borman K (eds) (2006) Comprehensive school reform. Urban Institute Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. American Evaluation Association (2011) American Evaluation Association statement on cultural competence in evaluation. Retrieved from
  3. Angerman WS (2004) Coming full circle with Boyd’s OODA loop ideas: an analysis of innovation diffusion and evolution. Defense Technical Information Center. Retrieved from
  4. Argyris C, Schön DA (1974) Theory in practice: increasing professional effectiveness. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  5. Aronson B, Laughter J (2016) The theory and practice of culturally relevant education: a synthesis of research across content areas. Rev Educ Res 86(1):163–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Athanases SZ, Bennett LH, Wahleithner JM (2015) Adaptive teaching for english language arts: following the pathway of classroom data in preservice teacher inquiry. J Lit Res 47(1):83–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Au K (1980) Participation structures in a reading lesson with Hawaiian children: analysis of a culturally appropriate instructional event. Anthropol Educ Q 11(2):91–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Averch HA, Carroll SJ, Donaldson TS, Kiesling HJ, Pincus JA (1972) How effective is schooling? A critical review of research. RAND Corporation.
  9. Bailey AL, Carroll PE (2015) Assessment of English language learners in the era of new academic content standards. Rev Res Educ 39:253–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bain LL (1985) The hidden curriculum re-examined. Quest 37(2):145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baker M, Pipi K, Cassidy T (2015) Kaupapa Māori action research in a Whānau Ora collective: an exemplar of Māori evaluative practice and the findings. Evaluat Matters-He Take Tō Te Aromatawai 1:113–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baker SK, Smolkowski K, Katz R, Fien H, Seeley JR, Kame‘Enui EJ, Beck CT (2008) Reading fluency as a predictor of reading proficiency in low-performing, high-poverty schools. Sch Psychol Rev 37(1):18Google Scholar
  13. Balter A, Grossman F (2009) The effects of the No Child Left Behind Act on language and culture education in Navajo public schools. J Am Ind Educ 48(3):19–46Google Scholar
  14. Barnhardt R (2014) Creating a place for indigenous knowledge in education: the Alaska Native knowledge network. In: Grunewald DA, Smith GA (eds) Place-based education in the global age. Routledge, New York, pp 137–158Google Scholar
  15. Barnhardt R, Kawagley AO (2005) Indigenous knowledge systems and Alaska Native ways of knowing. Anthropol Educ Q 36(1):8–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Basso KH (1996) Wisdom sits in places: landscape and language among the Western Apache. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NMGoogle Scholar
  17. Battiste M, Bell L, Findlay LM (2002) Decolonizing education in Canadian universities: an interdisciplinary, international, indigenous research project. Can J Nativ Educ 26(2):82Google Scholar
  18. Battiste M, Henderson J (2000) Protecting indigenous language and heritage: a global challenge. Purich Publishing Ltd., SaskatoonGoogle Scholar
  19. Benham MK, Heck R (1998) Culture and educational policy in Hawaiʻi: the silencing of native voices. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, MahwahGoogle Scholar
  20. Borman GD, Hewes GM, Overman LT, Brown S (2003) Comprehensive school reform and achievement: a meta-analysis. Rev Educ Res 73(2):125–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brave Heart M, DeBruyn L (1998) The American Indian holocaust: healing historical unresolved grief. Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res 8(2):60–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brave Heart M, Chase J, Elkins J, Altschul DB (2011) Historical trauma among indigenous peoples of the Americas: concepts, research, and clinical considerations. J Psychoactive Drugs 43(4):282–290. Scholar
  23. Brown-Rice K (2013) Examining the theory of historical trauma among Native Americans. The Professional Counselor 3(3):117–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brunner I, Guzman A (1989) Participatory evaluation: a tool to assess projects and empower people. N Dir Eval 1989(42):9–18Google Scholar
  25. Castagno AE, Brayboy BMJ (2008) Culturally responsive schooling for indigenous youth: a review of the literature. Rev Educ Res 78(4):941–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cazden CB, John VP, Hymes D (1972) Functions of language in the classroom. Teachers College, Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Charlot J (2005) Classical Hawaiian education: generations of Hawaiian culture. BYU The Pacific Institute, La‘ieGoogle Scholar
  28. Charters C, Stavenhagen R (eds) (2009) Making the declaration work: the United Nations declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples. Transaction Publishers, SomersetGoogle Scholar
  29. Chun MM (2011) Nō Nā Mamo: traditional and contemporary Hawaiian beliefs and practices. University of Hawaiʻi Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  30. Cooperrider DL, Srivastva S (1987) Appreciative inquiry in organizational life. Res Org Change Develop 1(1):129–169Google Scholar
  31. Cram F, Kennedy V, Paipa K, Pipi K, Wehipeihana N (2015) Being culturally responsive through kaupapa Māori evaluation. Continuing the journey to reposition culture and cultural context in evaluation theory and practice 289–311Google Scholar
  32. Crawford VM (2007) Adaptive expertise as knowledge building in science teachers’ problem solving. In: Vosniadou S, Kayser D, Protopapas A (eds) Proceedings of the second European cognitive science conference. Psychology Press, New York, pp 250–255Google Scholar
  33. Crosland K, Gutíerrez K (2003) Standardizing teaching, standardizing teachers: educational reform and the deprofessionalization of teachers in an english-only era. Educat Urban Minor 2(2):24–40Google Scholar
  34. Darling-Hammond L, Bransford J (eds) (2007) Preparing teachers for a changing world: what teachers should learn and be able to do. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  35. de Banter, H. (2017) Faster, please. Cosmotech. Retrieved from
  36. DeGroat J, Edgewater V, Hale V, Lockard L, Johnson Z & Nelson-Barber S (2015) Creating an ecology of support for Indigenous learner success. In: Symposium presented at the Navajo Studies Conference, May 2015, Flagstaff, AZGoogle Scholar
  37. Delpit L (1988) The silenced dialogue: power and pedagogy in educating other people’s children. Harv Educ Rev 58(3):280–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Delpit L (1995) Other people’s children: cultural conflict in the classroom. The New Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Demmert W (2001) Improving academic performance among Native American students: a review of the research literature. ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education, CharlestonGoogle Scholar
  40. Denzin NK, Giardina MD (2016) Research ethics for protecting indigenous knowledge and heritage: institutional and researcher responsibilities. In: Ethical futures in qualitative research. Routledge, New York, pp 111–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Denzin NK, Lincoln YS, Smith LT (eds) (2008) Handbook of critical and indigenous methodologies. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  42. Dewey J (1938/2007) Experience and education. Simon and Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Deyhle D, Swisher K (1997) Chapter 3: Research in American Indian and Alaska Native education: from assimilation to self-determination. Rev Res Educ 22:113–194Google Scholar
  44. Dubberley H (2008) How do you design? A compendium of models. Retrieved 2008 from
  45. Dunn HH (2014) Examining growth patterns in Hawaiʻi’s public school children’s reading skill development, kindergarten through grade 3: a multilevel approach. Unpublished dissertation, University of Hawaiʻi at MānoaGoogle Scholar
  46. Ede A (2006) Scripted curriculum: is it a prescription for success? Child Educ 83(1):29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Endsley MR (1995) Toward a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Human Factors 37(1):32–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Endsley MR (2000) Theoretical underpinnings of situation awareness: a critical review. In: Endsley MR, Garland DJ (eds) Situation awareness analysis and measurement. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 3–32Google Scholar
  49. Endsley MR, Bolté B, Jones DG (2003) Designing for situation awareness: an approach to user-centered design. Taylor & Francis, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Eriks-Brophy A, Crago M (2003) Variation in instructional discourse features: cultural or linguistic? Evidence from Inuit and non-Inuit teachers of nunavik. Anthropol Educ Q 34(4):396–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ernest P (2009) New philosophy of mathematics: implications for mathematics education. In: Greer B, Mukhopdhuyay S, Powell A, Nelson-Barber S (eds) Culturally responsive mathematics education. Routledge, New York, pp 43–64Google Scholar
  52. Evans-Campbell T (2008) Historical trauma in American Indian/Native Alaskan communities a multilevel framework for exploring impacts on individuals, families, and communities. J Interpers Violence 23(3):316–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Every Student Succeeds Act (2015) Public Law 114–95 Retrieved 06 Dec 2017
  54. Fast E, Collin-Vézina D (2010) Historical trauma, race-based trauma and resilience of indigenous peoples: a literature review. First People Child Fam Rev 5(1):126–136Google Scholar
  55. Fetterman D, Wandersman A (2007) Empowerment evaluation: yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Am J Eval 28(2):179–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fish NJ (2017) Majority of Arizona’s Native Americans not speaking Navajo language at home, Nathan J. Fish/Cronkite News, 12 August 2017. Retrieved from Indian Country Today
  57. Fixsen, D., Blase, K., Metz, A., & Van Dyke, M. (2013). Statewide implementation of evidence-based programs. Except Child, 79(2), 213-230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gamble JA (2008) A developmental evaluation primer. JW McConnell Family Foundation, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  59. Gardner H (2011) Frames of mind: the theory of multiple intelligences. Basic books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Gaudry A (2011) Insurgent research. Wicazo Sa Review 26(1):113–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Giroux HA, Penna AN (1979) Social education in the classroom: the dynamics of the hidden curriculum. Theory Res Soc Educ 7(1):21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. González N, Moll LC, Amanti C (eds) (2005) Funds of knowledge. Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates, MahwahGoogle Scholar
  63. Good RH III, Simmons DC, Kame‘enui EJ (2001) The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Sci Stud Read 5(3):257–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Goodman RD, West-Olatunji CA (2010) Educational hegemony, traumatic stress, and African American and Latino American students. J Multicult Counsel Develop 38(3):176–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gordon R, Kane T, Steiger D (2006) Identifying effective teachers using performance on the job. The Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  66. Gorski P, Zenkov Z (eds) (2014) The big lies of school reform: finding better solutions for the future of public education. Routledge, New York, pp 7–16Google Scholar
  67. Gray J, Beresford Q (2008) A ‘formidable challenge’: Australia’s quest for equity in indigenous education. Aust J Educ 52(2):197–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gutíerrez K, Rogoff B (2003) Cultural ways of learning: individual traits or repertoires of practice? Educ Res 32(5):19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Henig JR, Riehl CJ, Rebell MA, Wolff JR (2015) Putting collective impact in context: a review of the literature on local cross-sector collaboration to improve education. Teachers College, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  70. Hood S, Hopson R, Kirkhart K (2015) Culturally responsive evaluation: theory, practice and future implications. In: Newcomer KE, Hatry HP, Wholey JS (eds) Handbook of practical program evaluation. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  71. Hood S (2014) How will we know it when we see it? A critical friend perspective of the graduate education diversity internship (GEDI) program and its legacy in evaluation. In: Collins PM, Hopson R (eds) Building a new generation of culturally responsive evaluators through AEA’s graduate education diversity internship program: new directions for evaluation, vol 143. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp 109–121Google Scholar
  72. House D (2005) Language shift among the Navajos: identity politics and cultural continuity. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  73. Ingersoll R, Perda D (2008) The status of teaching as a profession. In: Schools and society: a sociological approach to education. Sage/Pine Forge Press, Los Angeles, pp 107–118Google Scholar
  74. Jackson P (1968) Life in classrooms. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  75. James EA, Milenkiewicz MT, Bucknam A (2008) Participatory action research for educational leadership: using data-driven decision making to improve schools. Sage, Los AngelesCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jenkins H, Purushotma R, Weigel M, Clinton K, Robison AJ (2009) Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: media education for the 21st century. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  77. Jimenez-Silva M, Gomez L, Cisneros J (2014) Examining Arizona’s policy response post Flores v. Arizona in educating K-12 English language learners. J Latinos Educ 13(3):181–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Johnson, Z. (2013). “E Hoʻomau!” A study of Hawai‘i teachers navigating change through generative praxis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  79. Johnson Z (2017) Teachers as designers of content-adaptive learning experience. In: Goldman S, Kabayadondo Z (eds) Taking design thinking to school: how the technology of design can transform teachers, learners, and classrooms. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. Jordan C (1995) Creating cultures of schooling: historical and conceptual background of the KEEP/rough rock collaboration. Biling Res J 19(1):83–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kahakalau K (2004) Indigenous heuristic action research: bridging western and indigenous research methodologies. Hūlili 1(1):19–33Google Scholar
  82. Kameʻenui EJ, Carnine DW (1998) Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners. Prentice-Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. Kanahele GHS (1992) Kū kanaka - stand tall: a search for Hawaiian values. University of Hawai‘i Press, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  84. Kana‘iaupuni SM (2005) Ka‘akālai kū kanaka: a call for strengths-based approaches from a Native Hawaiian perspective. Educational Researcher 34(5):32–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kana‘iaupuni SM, Kawai‘ae‘a KK (2008) E lauhoe mai na wa‘a: toward a Hawaiian indigenous education teaching framework. Hūlili: Multidisciplinary Research on Hawaiian Well-Being 5:67–90Google Scholar
  86. Kana‘iaupuni SM, Ledward BC (2013) Hoʻopilina: the call for cultural relevance in education. Hūlili: Multidiscip Res Hawaii Well-Being 9:154–204Google Scholar
  87. Kana‘iaupuni SM, Ledward B, Jensen U (2010) Culture-based education and its relationship to student outcomes, Honolulu, Kamehameha Schools, Research & Evaluation DivisionGoogle Scholar
  88. Kana‘iaupuni SM, Ledward B, Malone N (2017) Mohala i ka wai: cultural advantage as a framework for indigenous culture-based education and student outcomes. Am Educ Res J 54(1_suppl):311S–339SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kana‘iaupuni SK, Malone N, Ishibashi K (2005) Ka huaka‘i: Native Hawaiian educational assessment. Pauahi Publications, Kamehameha SchoolsGoogle Scholar
  90. Kania J, Hanleybrown F, Splansky Juster J (2014a) Essential mindset shifts for collective impact. Stanford Soc Innovat Rev (suppl) 12(4):2–5Google Scholar
  91. Kania J, Hanleybrown F, Splansky Juster J, Edmondson J, Hecht B, Bartczak L et al (2014b) Collective insights on collective impact. Stanford Soc Innovat Rev (suppl) 12(4):1–24Google Scholar
  92. Kara H (2015) Creative research methods in the social sciences: a practical guide. Policy Press, ChicagoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kawakami AJ, Aton K, Cram F, Lai M, Porima L (2008) Improving the practice of evaluation through indigenous values and methods. Fundamental issues in evaluation 219–242Google Scholar
  94. Keehne C, Sarsona W, Kawakami A, Au K (in press) Culturally responsive instruction and literacy learning. J Lit Res 30:297–319Google Scholar
  95. Kelley A, Belcourt-Dittloff A, Belcourt C, Belcourt G (2013) Research ethics and indigenous communities. Am J Public Health 103(12):2146–2152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kirkness VJ (1995) Aboriginal peoples and tertiary education in Canada: institutional responses. London J Canadian Stud 11:28–59Google Scholar
  97. Kirkness VJ, Barnhardt R (1991) First nations and higher education: the four R’s – respect, relevance, reciprocity and responsibility. J Am Ind Educ 30(3):1–15Google Scholar
  98. Kirkness VJ, Barnhardt R (2001) First nations and higher education: the four R’s – respect, relevance, reciprocity, responsibility. In: Hayoe R, Pan J (eds) Knowledge across cultures: a contribution to dialogue among civilizations. Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  99. Kirmayer LJ, Dandeneau S, Marshall E, Phillips MK, Williamson KJ (2011) Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives. The Canadian J Psychiatr 56(2):84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kovach M (2010) Indigenous methodologies: characteristics, conversations and contexts. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  101. Labaree DF (2004) The trouble with ed schools. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  102. Labov W (1972) Language in the inner city: studies in the Black English vernacular, vol 3. University of Pennsylvania Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  103. Ladson-Billings G (2014a) Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: aka the remix. Harv Educ Rev 84(1):74–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ladson-Billings G (2014b) The pedagogy of poverty: the big lies about poor children. In: Gorski P, Zenkov K (eds) The big lies of school reform: finding better solutions for the future of public education. Routledge, New York, pp 7–16Google Scholar
  105. LaFrance J, Nichols R (2009) Indigenous evaluation framework: telling our story in our place and time. American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  106. LaFrance J, Nichols R (2010) Reframing evaluation: defining an indigenous evaluation framework. Canadian J Program Evaluat 23(2):13–31Google Scholar
  107. LaFrance J, Nelson-Barber S, Rechebei E, Gordon J (2015) Partnering with Pacific communities to ground evaluation in local culture and context: promises and challenges. In: Hood S, Hopson R, Frierson H (eds) Continuing the journey to reposition culture and cultural context in evaluation theory and practice. Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, pp 361–378Google Scholar
  108. Lee CD (2008) The centrality of culture to the scientific study of learning and development: how an ecological framework in education research facilitates civic responsibility. Educ Res 37(5):267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lipka J, Mohatt G, The Ciulistet (eds) (1998) Transforming the culture of schools: Yupʻik Eskimo examples. Lawrence Erlbaum, MahwahGoogle Scholar
  110. Lipka J, Adams B (2004) Culturally based math education as a way to improve Alaska Native students’ math performance. The Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment and Instruction in Mathematics Series
  111. Lipka J, Sharp N, Adams B, Sharp F (2007) Creating a third space for authentic biculturalism: examples from math in a cultural context. J Am Ind Educ 46(3):94–115Google Scholar
  112. Lomawaima & McCarty (2006) To remain an Indian: lessons in democracy from a century of Native American education. Teachers College Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Lynch S, O’Donnell C (2005) The evolving definition, measurement, and conceptualization of fidelity of implementation in scale-up of highly rated science curriculum units in diverse middle schools. In: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  114. Marulis LM (2014) Conceptualizing and assessing metacognitive development in young children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  115. Maryboy NC, Begay D (2010) Sharing the skies: Navajo astronomy. Rio Nuevo Publishers, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  116. McAlpine L, Taylor DM (1993) Instructional preferences of Cree, Inuit, and Mohawk teachers. J Am Ind Educ 33:1–20Google Scholar
  117. McCarty TL (2002) A place to be Navajo: Rough Rock and the struggle for self-determination in indigenous schooling. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. McCarty T, Lee T (2014) Critical culturally sustaining/revitalizing pedagogy and indigenous education sovereignty. Harv Educ Rev 84(1):101–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. McCubbin LD, Marsella A (2009) Native Hawaiians and psychology: the cultural and historical context of indigenous ways of knowing. Cult Divers Ethn Minor Psychol 15(4):374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. McCubbin LD, Ishikawa ME, McCubbin HI (2008) The Kanaka maoli: Native Hawaiians and their testimony of trauma and resilience. In: Ethnocultural perspectives on disaster and trauma. Springer, New York, pp 271–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Medin D, Bang M (2014) Who’s asking? Native science, western science, and science education. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  122. Mertler C (2017) Action research: improving schools and empowering educators, 5th edn. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Meyer M (1998) Native Hawaiian epistemology: exploring Hawaiian views of knowledge. Cultural Surviv Quartr 22(1):38–40Google Scholar
  124. Meyer MA (2003) Ho‘oulu: our time of becoming: Hawaiian epistemology and early writings. ʻAi Pōhaku Press, Native Books, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  125. Mowbray CT, Holter MC, Teague GB, Bybee D (2003) Fidelity criteria: development, measurement, and validation. Am J Eval 24(3):315–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Mukhopadhyay S, Powell A, Frankenstein M (2009) An ethnomathematical perspective on culturally responsive mathematics education. In: Greer B, Mukhopdhuyay S, Powell A, Nelson-Barber S (eds) Culturally responsive mathematics education. Routledge, New York, pp 65–84Google Scholar
  127. Nā Lau Lama Community Report (2006) Retrieved February 2018 from
  128. Nasir NS, Snyder CR, Shah N, Ross KM (2012) Racial storylines and implications for learning. Hum Dev 55:285–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Nelson-Barber S, Dull V (1998) Don’t act like a teacher! Images of effective instruction in a Yup’ik Eskimo classroom. In: Lipka J, Mohatt GV, The Ciulistet Group (eds) Transforming the culture of schools: Yup’ik Eskimo examples. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 91–105Google Scholar
  130. Nelson-Barber S, Estrin E (1995) Bringing Native American perspectives to the teaching of mathematics and science. Theory Pract 34(3):174–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Nelson-Barber S, Johnson Z (Forthcoming) Raising the standard for testing research-based interventions in Indigenous learning communities. Int Rev Educ Special Issue on indigenous knowledges and learning: vital contributions towards sustainabilityGoogle Scholar
  132. Nelson-Barber S, Johnson Z (2016) Acknowledging the perils of “best practices” in an Indigenous community, Contemp Educ Psychol 47:44–50. Special Issue on Indigenous Issues in Education and Research: Looking forward. Contemp Educ Psychol 47:44–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Nelson-Barber S, Trumbull E (2015) The common core initiative, education outcomes, and American Indian/Alaska Native students: observations and recommendations. Center on Standards and Assessments Implementation, WestEd, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  134. Niles M, Byers L, Krueger E (2007) Best practice and evidence-based research in indigenous early childhood intervention programs. Can J Nativ Educ 30(1):108Google Scholar
  135. No Child Left Behind Act (2001) Title I - Part F - Section 1606 (ESEA) (
  136. O’Donnell CL (2007) Fidelity of implementation to instructional strategies as a moderator of curriculum unit effectiveness in a large-scale middle school science quasi-experiment. Dissertation Abstracts International, 68(08) (UMINo. AAT 3276564)Google Scholar
  137. O’Donnell CL (2008) Defining, conceptualizing, and measuring fidelity of implementation and its relationship to outcomes in K–12 curriculum intervention research. Rev Educ Res 78(1):33–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Paris D (2012) Culturally sustaining pedagogy: a needed change in stance, terminology, and practice. Educ Res 41(3):93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Partnership for 21st Century Learning (2015, May) P21 framework definitions. Retrieved from
  140. Patton MQ (1994) Developmental evaluation. Eval Pract 15(3):311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Patton MQ (2011) Developmental evaluation: applying complexity concepts to enhance innovation and use. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  142. Phillips S (1983) The invisible culture: communication in classroom and community on the Warm Springs Indian reservation. Longman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  143. Privitera GJ, Ahlgrim-Delzell L (2018) Research methods for education. Sage Publications, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  144. Pukuʻi MK, Haertig EW, Lee CA (1972) Nānā i ke kumu (look to the source), vol I & II. Queen Liliʻuokalani Children’s Center, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  145. Purdie N, Tripcony P, Boulton-Lewis G, Fanshawe J, Gunstone A (2000) Positive self-identity for indigenous students and its relationship to school outcomes. Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  146. Putman SM, Rock T (2017) Action research: using strategic inquiry to improve teaching and learning. SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  147. Robertson J (2000) The three Rs of action research methodology: reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection-on-reality. Educat Action Res 8(2):307–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Roppolo K, Crow CL (2007) Native American education vs. Indian learning: still battling Pratt after all these years. Studies Am Ind Literat 19(1):3–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Rowan B, Camburn E, Barnes C (2004) Benefiting from comprehensive school reform: a review of research on CSR implementation. In: Cross C (ed) Putting the pieces together: lessons from comprehensive school reform research. National Clearinghouse for Comprehensive School Reform, Washington DC, pp 1–52Google Scholar
  150. Salzman MB (2001) Cultural trauma and recovery perspectives from terror management theory. Trauma Violence Abuse 2(2):172–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Salzman MB, Halloran MJ (2004) Cultural trauma and recovery: cultural meaning, self-esteem, and the reconstruction of the cultural anxiety buffer. In: Handbook of experimental existential psychology. Guilford Press, New York, pp 231–246Google Scholar
  152. Schwartz DL, Bransford JD, Sears DA (2005) Efficiency and innovation in transfer. In: Mestre J (ed) Transfer of learning from a modern multidisciplinary perspective. Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, pp 1–52Google Scholar
  153. Scollon R, Scollon SB (1981) Narrative, literacy, and face in interethnic communication, vol 7. Ablex Publishing Corporation, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  154. Shavelson R, Towne L (eds) (2002) Scientific research in education. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  155. Shulman LS (1986a) Paradigms and research programs in the study of teaching. In: Wittrock M (ed) Handbook of research on teaching, 3rd edn. Macmillan, New York, pp 3–36Google Scholar
  156. Shulman L (1986b) Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching. Educ Res 15(2):4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Shulman L (1987) Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reform. Harv Educ Rev 57(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Shulman LS (1992) Toward a pedagogy of cases. Case Methods Teacher Educ 13(2):1–30Google Scholar
  159. Slavin RE (2007 Comprehensive School Reform. Manuscript written under funding from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education (Grant No. R305A040082)Google Scholar
  160. Smith GH (2012) The politics of reforming Māori education: the transforming potential of kura kaupapa Māori. In: Lauder H, Wiley C (eds) Towards successful schooling. Routledge, New York, pp 73–87Google Scholar
  161. Smith LT (2013) Decolonizing methodologies: research and indigenous peoples. Zed Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  162. Smith LT (1998) The educational and cultural implications of Maori language revitalization. Cult Surviv Q 22(1):27–28.Google Scholar
  163. Smith, L. T. (1996). Ngā aho o te kākahu mātauranga: The multiple layers of struggle by Māori in education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Auckland University, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  164. Solano-Flores G, Nelson-Barber S (2001) On the cultural validity of science assessments. J Res Sci Teach 38:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Sotero MM (2006) A conceptual model of historical trauma: implications for public health practice and research. J Health Disp Res Pract 1(1):93–108Google Scholar
  166. Stamm BH, Stamm HE, Hudnall AC, Higson-Smith C (2004) Considering a theory of cultural trauma and loss. J Loss Trauma 9(1):89–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Stanford D.School & Both, T. (2018) The Bootcamp Bootleg. Stanford University Hasso Plattner Institute of Design ( Retrieved from
  168. Swisher K, Dehyle D (1987) Styles of learning and learning styles: educational conflict for American Indian youth. J Multiling Multicult Dev 8:345–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Tharp R (1982) The effective instruction of comprehension: results and description of the Kamehameha Early Education Program. Read Res Q 17(4):503–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Tharp RG (1989) Culturally compatible education: a formula for designing effective classrooms. In: What do anthropologists have to say about dropouts. Falmer, New York, pp 51–66Google Scholar
  171. The Coolangatta Statement on Indigenous Peoples’ Rights in Education (August 6, 1999). Hilo, Hawai‘i, World indigenous peoples’ conference on education. Retrieved from
  172. Tibbetts K, Kahakalau K, Johnson Z (2007) Education with aloha and student assets. Hūlili 4:147–181Google Scholar
  173. Trumbull E, Sexton U, Nelson-Barber S, Johnson Z (2015) Assessment practices in schools serving American Indian and Alaska Native students. J Am Ind Educ 54(3):5–30Google Scholar
  174. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples adopted by the Human Rights Council on 29 June 2006; updated March 2008. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. Retrieved from:
  175. Vernez G, Karam R, Mariano LT, DeMartini C (2006) Evaluating comprehensive school reform models at scale: Focus on implementation. RAND Corporation. Abstract retrieved from (not included in the publication)
  176. Villegas, M. M. (2010). 500 Māori PhDs in five years: Insights from a successful Indigenous higher education initiative. Unpublished dissertation, Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
  177. Whitney D, Cooperrider D (2011) Appreciative inquiry: a positive revolution in change. Berret-Koehler Publishers, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  178. Whorf BL (1956) Language, thought and reality. In: Caroll JB (ed) Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. MIT Press/Wiley, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
  179. Winstead T, Lawrence A, Brantmeier EJ, Frey CJ (2008) Language, sovereignty, cultural contestation, and American Indian schools: No Child Left Behind and a Navajo test case. J Am Ind Educ 47:46–64Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Intrinsic Impact ConsultingHonoka‘aUSA
  2. 2.WestEdSan FranciscoUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sharon Nelson-Barber
    • 1
  • Zanette Johnson
    • 2
  1. 1.WestEd,CaliforniaUSA
  2. 2.Independent ResearcherHawaiiUSA

Personalised recommendations