Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics

2019 Edition
| Editors: David M. Kaplan

Women in Agriculture

  • Amy StrattonEmail author
  • Courtney M. GallaherEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1179-9_579

Introduction

The agricultural sector is stereotypically viewed as a masculine domain with a heavy emphasis on physical labor and mechanized fieldwork, yet women are responsible for a comparable portion of agricultural labor. Depending upon the region and the type of agricultural activity, women can account for as little as 20 % of the labor force, such as in the case of Latin America, or upward of 60 % in areas such as Lesotho, Mozambique, and Sierra Leone. On average in developing nations, women comprise 43 % of the agricultural labor force (FAO 2011). Women’s work is conducted in a multitude of settings including, but not limited to, commercial or industrial farming, subsistence farming, organic farming, and the raising and production of livestock. Accurate output numbers are difficult to calculate as women are frequently underrepresented in the agriculture industry due to perceived gender roles and the belief that women are expected merely to help on family farms and do not...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Dolan, C., Opondo, M., & Smith, S. (2003). Gender, rights and participation in the Kenya cut flower industry. Report No. 2768. Greenwich: Natural Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  2. El-Tobshy, Z. (2005). Gender and agriculture in Egypt. In P. Motzafi-Haller (Ed.), Women in agriculture in the Middle East (pp. 115–139). Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (1998). Rural women and food security: Current situation and perspectives. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  4. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). (2011). The state of food and agriculture. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  5. Gray, L., & Kevane, M. (1999). Diminished access, diverted exclusion: Women and land tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Studies Review, 42, 15–39.  https://doi.org/10.2307/525363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hammami, R. (2005). Women in agricultural production in the Palestinian authority. In P. Motzafi-Haller (Ed.), Women in agriculture in the Middle East (pp. 47–92). Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  7. Hoppe, R. A., & Korb, P. (2013). Characteristics of women farm operators and their farms. In J. Wallace & A. Marshall (Eds.), Women-operated and family farms in the United States: Characteristics and trends (pp. 1–56). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. McMahon, M. (2002). Resisting globalization: Women organic farmers and local food systems. Canadian Woman Studies, 21(3), 203–206.Google Scholar
  9. Prügl, E. (2011). Transforming masculine rule. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Spring, A. (2000). Commercialization and women farmers: Old paradigms and new themes. In A. Spring (Ed.), Women farmers and commercial ventures: Increasing food security in developing countries. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Talcott, M. (2003). Gendered webs of development and resistance: Women, children, and flowers in Bogota. Signs, 29(2), 465–489.  https://doi.org/10.1086/378107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Trauger, A. (2004). ‘Because they can do the work’: Women farmers in sustainable agriculture in Pennsylvania, USA. Gender, Place and Culture, 11(2), 289–307.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369042000218491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wallace, J., & Marshall, A. (2013). Preface. In J. Wallace & A. Marshall (Eds.), Women-operated and family farms in the United States: Characteristics and trends (pp. vii–viii). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Waugh, I. M. (2010). Examining the sexual harassment experiences of Mexican immigrant farm working women. Violence Against Women, 16(3), 237–261.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801209360857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wells, B. (2013). Daughters and granddaughters of farm workers; Emerging from the long shadow of farm labor. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Wright, C., & Madrid, G. (2007). Contesting ethical trade in Colombia’s cut-flower industry: A case of cultural and economic injustice. Culture Sociology, 1(2), 255–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Office of Student Engagement and Experiential LearningNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geography, Women, Gender and Sexuality StudiesNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA
  3. 3.Department of GeographyWomen’s Studies Program, Northern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA