Hinduism and Tribal Religions

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffery D. Long, Rita D. Sherma, Pankaj Jain, Madhu Khanna

Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1036-5_197-1



In its full-fledged form, the Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta is a Vedānta school, that is, it recognizes a form of God as brahman (on the various ways of understanding God in India, see [6]), it accepts the authority of a given set of texts (the Upaniṣads, the Brahmasūtra, and the Bhagavadgītā), and explicitly grounds its tenets in the exegesis of textual passages out of the above works.

The full-fledged Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta also accepts further groups of texts, namely, the Pañcarātra (a group of Vaiṣṇava texts prescribing personal and temple rituals (see [9]) and on their role within Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta, [7]) and, more importantly, the Tamil devotional poems collected in the Divyaprabandham. These poems were composed in Tamil by poet-saints called āḻvārs, and they highlight various personal traits of the various aspects of Viṣṇu.

The Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta flourished predominantly in South India, especially in the second millennium CE and...


Bhakti Prapatti Devotional Texts Conscious Beings Brahman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Freschi E (2015) Free Will in Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta: Rāmānuja, Sudarśana Sūri and Veṅkaṭanātha. Relig Compass 9(9):287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Freschi E (2019) Are the limbs of God’s body free? Yes, if he wants so – free will in and before Veṅkaṭanātha. In: Schmücker M, Sellmer S (eds) Fate, freedom and prognostication in Indian traditions. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, WienGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Freschi E (2018) Bhakti in Rāmānuja: Continuities and changes of perspective. In: Brahmavidya Annual Bulletion of Adyar Library & Research CenterGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Freschi E (2018) Descriptive and prescriptive language in the Vedas: the Pūrva Mīmāṃsā interpretation of the Vedas from Śaṅkara to Rāmānuja and after him. In: Mishra G, Ram-Prasad Ch (eds) The world of Ramanuja: tradition and thought in history and today. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Freschi E (2018) God not without qualities: the unavoidable relation between God and His qualities in Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta. In: Bertini D, Migliorini D (eds) Relations. Ontology and Philosophy of Religion. Mimesis International, Milano, pp 235–249Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Freschi E (2019) God’s omniscience and the world’s reality: Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta perspectives on God and His knowledge. In: Chakrabarti A, Dasti M, Patil PG (eds) God, no-god, omniscience and realism. SUNY Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Freschi E (2019) Śrī Vaiṣṇavism: the making of a theology. In: Venkatesan A (ed) Many Vaiṣṇavisms: histories of the worship of Viṣṇu. History of Hinduism. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Freschi E (2018) “We resort to reason”: the argumentative structure in Veṅkaṭanātha’s Seśvaramīmāṃsā. In: Black B, Ram-Prasad Ch (eds) In dialogue with classical Indian traditions: encounter, transformation, and interpretation. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leach R (2012) Textual Traditions and Religious Identities in the Pāñcarātra. PhD thesis. University of Edinburgh, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lester RC (1966) The concept of prapatti in the thought of Rāmānuja. In: Proceedings and transactions of the all-India oriental conference. Twentyfirst session, Srinagar. October 1961 2.1, pp 271–285Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lester RC (1976) Rāmānuja on the yoga. Adyar Library, MadrasGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mesquita R (1973) Yāmunamuni: Leben, Datierung und Werke. WZKS 17:177–193Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mumme PY (1987) The Mumukṣuppaṭi of Piḷḷai Lokācārya with Maṇavaḷamāmuni’s commentary. Ananthacharya Indological Research Institute, BombayGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mumme PY (1988) The Śrī Vaiṣṇava theological dispute: Maṇavāḷamāmuni and Vedānta Deśika. New Era Publications, MadrasGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ram-Prasad Ch (2013) Divine Self, Human Self. The Philosophy of Being in Two Gītā Commentaries. Bloomsbury, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Raman S (2007) Self-surrender (prapatti) to God in Śrīvaiṣṇavism: Tamil cats and Sanskrit monkeys, RoutledgeCurzon Hindū Studies Series. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Young K (2019) The first Śrīvaiṣṇava canonization: deconstructing and reconstructing the Nāthamuni story. In: Venkatesan A (ed) Many Vaiṣṇavisms: histories of the worship of Viṣṇu. History of Hinduism. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for the Cultural and Intellectual History of AsiaAustrian Academy of Sciences and University of ViennaViennaAustria