Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions

Living Edition
| Editors: Pedro Teixeira (Editor-in-Chief), Jung Cheol Shin (Editor-in-Chief)

Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Bulgaria

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_565-1

Bulgaria is a Balkan nation whose long history dates back to the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681 AD. A melting pot of Greek, Slavic, Ottoman, and Persian influences, the country has a rich cultural heritage. After more than four decades (1944–1989) as part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc, the country started its democratic transition at the end of 1989 and moved toward a market-based economy. Today Bulgaria is an urbanized country governed as a unitary parliamentary republic. It became a member of the European Union (EU) in 2007.

Higher Education System Development

The first Bulgarian university (Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”) was founded in 1888, 10 years after Bulgaria’s liberation from Ottoman rule. In the country’s process of democratization following 1989, the autonomy of Bulgarian higher education institutions (HEIs) was restored; the three-level model of higher education (bachelor, master, and doctoral degrees) was established and university quality...


Public HEIs Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) Boyadjiev Private HEIs Autonomous HEIs 
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Data Sources

  1. National Statistical Institute. www.nsi.bg


  1. Bulgarian University Ranking System. http://rsvu.mon.bg/rsvu3/?locale=en
  2. Ministry of Education and Science. https://www.mon.bg/
  3. National Evaluation and Accreditation Agency. https://www.neaa.government.bg/en/

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for the Study of Societies and KnowledgeBulgarian Academy of SciencesSofiaBulgaria

Section editors and affiliations

  • Barbara M. Kehm
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Education, Robert Owen Centre for Educational ChangeUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUnited Kingdom