Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Myanmar

  • Roger Y. ChaoJrEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_511-1

Higher Education Systems Development

Myanmar is the largest land-locked country in the Southeast Asian region and, in 2017, has a population of 53.4 million (ASEAN n.d.). Ethnic diversity, with around 135 distinct ethnic groups, is a prominent feature of Myanmar where roughly 68% of the population are Burman with other major groups include Shan, Karen, Rakhine, Chinese, Indian, and Mon (CESR 2013; Hayden and Martin 2013). It was a British colony until 1948 and underwent political changes from a democracy and Military Government and, since 2011, initiated its transition to its current quasi-democratic government and a market-oriented economy. Its human development index has significantly improved from 0.353 to 0.556 in 1990 and 2015, respectively, positioning the country at 145 out of the 188 countries and territories (UNDP 2016).

Myanmar’s higher education sector rapidly expanded from five higher education institutions (HEIs) all under the Ministry of Education (MoE) in the 1930s to...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Independent Education ConsultantHong KongChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Rui Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Policy, Administration and Social Sciences EducationThe University of Hong KongPokfulamHong Kong