Higher Education Systems and Institutions, Albania
Higher Education System Development in Albania
With a population of about 2.9 million (INSTAT 2018), Albania is one of the smallest countries in Southeast Europe. The country proclaimed its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912. After the Second World War, Albania became part of the Eastern Bloc. The totalitarian communist regime, supported in the beginning by the Soviet Union and later by the People’s Republic of China, ruled the country until 1991. The first democratic elections were conducted in March 1991. In the last 10 years of the communist rule and during the transition, the country was afflicted by a deep economic crisis. Now Albania is an upper-middle income country with a GDP per capita of 4,600 US$ (or 12,021 in international dollars at PPP). The economy is characterized by low competitiveness, relatively low labor cost and low-technology activities (World Bank 2018; SCIMAGO 2013, 1212).
The first Albanian higher education institution was a 2-year pedagogical...
- Bartlett, Will, Milica Uvalic, Niccolo Durazzi, Vassilis Monastiriotis, and Tanguy Sene. 2017. From university to employment: Higher education provision and labour market needs in the Western Balkans synthesis report. Edited by Helene Skikos. Luxembourg: Publications Office. Online: Directorate-General for Education and Culture: European Commission.Google Scholar
- Dyrmishi, Demir. 2001. Arsimi dhe Shkenca ne vitet 1946–1960 (Education and science 1946–1960). Studime Historike [Historical Studies] (1–2):14. https://www.ceeol.com
- European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice. 2018. The European higher education area in 2018: Bologna process implementation report. Luxembourg: Publication Office of the European Union.Google Scholar
- Gjoncaj, Arjan. 2014. Raporti i pare per reformimin e arsimit te larte dhe kerkimit shkencor [First report for the reform in higher education and research]. Edited by Youth and Sports Ministry of Education. Tirana: Komisioni për Arsimin e Lartë dhe Kërkimin Shkencor [Commission for Higher Education and Research].Google Scholar
- Golemi, Bardhyl, and Vladimir Misja. 1987. Zhvillimi i Arsimit te Larte ne Shqiperi [The development of higher education in Albania]. Tirana: Universiteti i Tiranes. Enver Hoxha.Google Scholar
- INSTAT.Arsimi [Education]. 2018. Instituti i Statistikave. http://databaza.instat.gov.al/pxweb/en/
- Kambo, Enriketa. 2005. Arsimi në Shqipëri [Education in Albania] (1945–1960). Tirana: Mësonjëtorja.Google Scholar
- Misja, Vladimir, Arqile Teta, and Adriatik Kallulli. 1986. Higher education in Albania. In Monographs on higher education, ed. UNESCO CEPES. Bucharest: CEPES.Google Scholar
- Prifti, Ilia. 1996. Albania. In Relations between state and higher education, ed. Roel in ‘t Veld, Hans-Peter Fussel, and Guy R. Neave, 96–97. Hague/Boston: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
- SCIMAGO. 2013. The state of scientific performance in the Western Balkan countries. In World Bank technical assistance project, ed. World Bank Group. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- UNESCO – Institute for Statistics. 2018. Adapted from: UNESCO, http://data.uis.unesco.org
- World Bank. 2018. Data for Albania, Serbia, Macedonia, FYR, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro|Data. World Bank Group. https://data.worldbank.org/?locations=AL-RS-MK-BA-ME. Accessed 2 Oct.
- Zgaga, Pavel, Manja Klemenčič, Janja Komljenovič, Klemen Miklavič, Igor Repac, and Vedran Jakačić. 2013. Higher education in the Western Balkans: reforms, developments, trends. Ljubljana: Center for Education Policy Studies.Google Scholar