Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions

Living Edition
| Editors: Pedro Teixeira (Editor-in-Chief), Jung Cheol Shin (Editor-in-Chief)

Internationalization of Higher Education, China

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_228-1

Internationalization has been a survival tool since China started its modernization of higher education in the nineteenth century. It becomes more important recently when the international dimension and positioning of higher education assume global significance. The meanings and forms of China’s internationalization of higher education compare sharply with those of Western societies. Unlike most Western higher education systems that badly need to incorporate cultural values other than their own into institutional establishments, China’s priority is to integrate Western values with its traditions. The process of internationalizing higher education has been shot through with intense ideological and cultural conflicts.

Historical Development

China’s internationalization of higher education started when its oldest modern university was founded in 1893 as a “Self-Strengthening Institute” with European advice (Yang 2002). Chinese universities have since accepted the cultural values...


Western Higher Education Systems Chinese Higher Institutions Total International Students International Scholarly Community Developed Western World 
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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Policy, Administration and Social Sciences EducationThe University of Hong KongPokfulamHong Kong

Section editors and affiliations

  • Hans de Wit
    • 1
  • Laura E. Rumbley
    • 2
  • Fiona Hunter
    • 3
  • Lisa Unangst
    • 4
  • Edward Choi
    • 5
  1. 1.Center for International Higher EducationBoston CollegeBostonUSA
  2. 2.Center for International Higher EducationBoston CollegeChestnut HillUSA
  3. 3.Centre for Higher Education InternationalisationUniversità Cattolica del Sacro CuoreMilanItaly
  4. 4.Center for International Higher EducationBoston CollegeChestnut HillUSA
  5. 5.Center for International Higher EducationBoston CollegeChestnut HillUSA