Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy

Living Edition
| Editors: Mortimer Sellers, Stephan Kirste

Civic and Social Integration

  • Johannes EichenhoferEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6730-0_139-2


The concept of integration is mostly invoked in debates about (transnational) immigration. In most states of the world, integration is (still) the most popular answer to the question how the receiving state and society should deal with immigrants. The concept of integration thus concerns the conflict between transnational migration and national identity and between cultural diversity and social cohesion, and it asks for a fair distribution of rights and duties of the immigrants in order to achieve their full inclusion and participation in the receiving society. However, social integration is not only a process that concerns migrants but all members of society. Nonetheless, this entry aims to describe not only the process of social but also of civic integration, which, at any rate, only addresses foreigners or “aliens.” In this regard, this entry only deals with civic and social integration of “aliens.”

Definitional Approaches

Integrationis a vast, complex, and confusing...


Affirmative action Assimilation Citizenship Denizenship Diversity Equality Inclusion Participation Multiculturalism 
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Aleinikoff A, Kluesmeyer D (2000) Introduction. In: From migrants to citizens: membership in a changing world. Carnegie, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson E (2010) The imperative of integration. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  3. Benhabib S (2004) The rights of the others. Aliens, residents, and citizens. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. Bosniak L (2006) The citizen and alien. Dilemmas of contemporary membership. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  5. Cashin S (2004) Failures of integration: how race and class are undermining the American dream. Public Affairs, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  6. Castles S, Miller M (2003) The age of migration, 3rd edn. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  7. Davy U (2005) Integration of immigrants in Germany: a slowly evolving concept. Eur J Migr Law (EJML) 7:123–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Esser H (2001) Integration und ethnische Schichtung. http://www.mzes.uni-mannheim.de/publications/wp/wp-40.pdf
  9. Habermas J (1985) Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns: Zur Kritik der funktionalistischen Vernunft, Band II, 3rd edition, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  10. Kießling A (2015) Die funktion der staatsangehörigkeit als verlässliche grundlage gleichberechtigter zugehörigkeit. Der Staat 54(1):1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kymlicka W (1995) Multicultural citizenship. A liberal theory of minority rights. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  12. Lockwood D (1964) Social integration and system integration. In: Zollschan GK, Hirsch W (eds) Explorations in social change, Routledge and Keagan Paul PLC, London, pp 245–257Google Scholar
  13. Luhmann N (1995) Social systems. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Luhmann N (2004) Law as a social system. Oxford University Press, Oxford Google Scholar
  15. Motomura H (2006) Americans in waiting. The lost story of immigration and citizenship in the United States. Oxford University Press, Oxford Google Scholar
  16. Murphy C (2013) Immigration, integration and the law: the intersection of domestic. EU and International Law Regimes. Ashgate, FarnhamGoogle Scholar
  17. Parsons T (1952) The social system. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Smend R (1994) Verfassung und Verfassungsrecht. In: Staatsrechtliche Abhandlungen, 3rd edn, Duncker & Humblot, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  19. Soysal YN (1994) Limits of citizenship. Migrants and postnational membership in Europe. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BielefeldBielefeldGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Tetsu Sakurai
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Intercultural StudiesKobe UniversityKobeJapan