Advertisement

Mechanism Design of DLR Humanoid Robots

  • Christian Ott
  • Máximo A. Roa
  • Florian Schmidt
  • Werner Friedl
  • Johannes Englsberger
  • Robert Burger
  • Alexander Werner
  • Alexander Dietrich
  • Daniel Leidner
  • Bernd Henze
  • Oliver Eiberger
  • Alexander Beyer
  • Berthold Bäuml
  • Christoph Borst
  • Alin Albu-Schäffer
Reference work entry

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview on the development process from lightweight manipulators toward anthropomorphic humanoid robots at the German Aerospace Center – DLR. The technological basis for these robots is a modular drive concept based on a tight mechatronic integration of brushless DC motors, harmonic drive gears, and link-side joint torque sensors. The feedback of the joint torque allows to generate a back-drivable behavior, which facilitates the implementation of highly sensitive impedance controllers. Compliant control is the basis for safe and dependable operation of these robots during physical interaction with the environment and with humans. This chapter summarizes the mechatronic design concepts as well as the basic control and planning strategies of two torque-controlled humanoid robots developed at DLR, the wheeled robot Rollin’ Justin, and the biped robot Toro.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Albu-Schäffer, O. Eiberger, M. Grebenstein, S. Haddadin, C. Ott, T. Wimböck, S. Wolf, G. Hirzinger, Soft robotics: from torque feedback controlled lightweight robots to intrinsically compliant systems. Robot. Autom. Mag. 15(3), 20–30 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Albu-Schäffer, S. Haddadin, Ch. Ott, A. Stemmer, T. Wimböck, G. Hirzinger, The DLR lightweight robot – design and control concepts for robots in human environments. Ind. Robot. Int. J. 134(5), 376–385 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Albu-Schäffer, Ch. Ott, G. Hirzinger, A unified passivity based control framework for position, torque and impedance control of flexible joint robots. Int. J. Robot. Res. 26(1), 23–39 (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atlas – The Agile Anthropomorphic Robot (Online). Available in: http://www.bostondynamics.com/robot_Atlas.html
  5. 5.
    S. Baishya, B. Bäuml, Robust material classification with a tactile skin using deep learning, in IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2016, pp. 8–15Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    B. Bäuml, T. Hammer, R. Wagner, O. Birbach, T. Gumpert, F. Zhi, U. Hillenbrand, S. Beer, W. Friedl, J. Butterfass, Agile Justin: an upgraded member of DLR’s family of lightweight and torque controlled humanoids, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2014, pp. 2562–2563Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Bäuml, F. Schmidt, T. Wimböck, O. Birbach, A. Dietrich, M. Fuchs, W. Friedl, U. Frese, C. Borst, M. Grebenstein, O. Eiberger, G. Hirzinger, Catching flying balls and preparing coffee: Humanoid Rollin, Justin performs dynamic and sensitive tasks, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2011, pp. 3443–3444Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    O. Birbach, U. Frese, B. Bäuml, Rapid calibration of a multi-sensorial humanoid’s upper body: an automatic and self-contained approach. Int. J. Robot. Res. 34, 420–436 (2015)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Birkenkampf, D. Leidner, C. Borst, A knowledge-driven shared autonomy human-robot interface for tablet computers, in IEEE/RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2014, pp. 152–159Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C. Borst, T. Wimböck, F. Schmidt, M. Fuchs, B. Brunner, F. Zacharias, P.R. Giordano, R. Konietschke, W. Sepp, S. Fuchs, Rollin’Justin – mobile platform with variable base, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2009, pp. 1597–1598Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Butterfass, M. Grebenstein, H. Liu, G. Hirzinger, DLR Hand II: next generation of a dextrous robot hand, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation – ICRA, 2001, pp. 109–114Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Cheng, S.H. Hyon, J. Morimoto, A. Ude, G. Colvin, W. Scroggin, S.C. Jacobsen, CB: a humanoid research platform for exploring neuroscience. Adv. Robot. 21(10), 1097–1114 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Dietrich, T. Wimböck, A. Albu-Schäffer, G. Hirzinger, Reactive whole-body control: dynamic mobile manipulation using a large number of actuated degrees of freedom. IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag. 19(2), 20–33 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Dietrich, K. Bussmann, F. Petit, P. Kotyczka, C. Ott, B. Lohmann, A. Albu-Schäffer, Whole-body impedance control of wheeled mobile manipulators: stability analysis and experiments on the humanoid Robot Rollin’ Justin. Auton. Robot. 40(3), 505–517 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Englsberger, C. Ott, M.A. Roa, A. Albu-Schäffer, G. Hirzinger, Bipedal walking control based on capture point dynamics, in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2011, pp. 4420–4427Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Englsberger, C. Ott, A. Albu-Schäffer, Three-dimensional bipedal walking control using divergent component of motion, in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2013, pp. 2600–2607Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Englsberger, C. Ott, A. Albu-Schäffer, Three-dimensional bipedal walking control based on Divergent Component of Motion. IEEE Trans. Robot. 31(2), 355–368 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Englsberger, A. Werner, C. Ott, B. Henze, M. Roa, G. Garofalo, R. Burger, A. Beyer, O. Eiberger, K. Schmid, A. Albu-Schäffer, Overview of the torque-controlled humanoid robot TORO, in IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2014, pp. 916–923Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Fuchs, Ch. Borst, P. Robuffo Giordano, A. Baumann, E. Kraemer, J. Langwald, R. Gruber, N. Seitz, G. Plank, K. Kunze, R. Burger, F. Schmidt, T. Wimböck, G. Hirzinger, Rollin’ Justin – Design considerations and realization of a mobile platform for a humanoid upper body, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2009, pp. 4131–4137Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Grebenstein, A. Albu-Schäffer, T. Bahls, M. Chalon, O. Eiberger, W. Friedl, R. Gruber, S. Haddadin, U. Hagn, R. Haslinger, H. Höppner, S. Jörg, M. Nickl, A. Nothhelfer, F. Petit, J. Reill, N. Seitz, T. Wimböck, S. Wolf, T. Wüsthoff, G. Hirzinger, The DLR Hand Arm System, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2011, pp. 3175–3182Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Grebenstein, M. Chalon, W. Friedl, S. Haddadin, T. Wimböck, G. Hirzinger, R. Siegwart, The hand of the DLR hand arm system: designed for interaction. Int. J. Robot. Res. 31(13), 1531–1555 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. Hammer, B. Bäuml, The highly performant and realtime deterministic communication layer of the aRDx software framework, in IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics – ICAR, 2013, pp. 1–8Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    B. Henze, M.A. Roa, C. Ott, Passivity-based whole-body balancing for torque-controlled humanoid robots in multi-contact scenarios. Int. J. Robot. Res. 35(12), 1522–1543 (2016)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. Henze, A. Dietrich, C. Ott, An approach to combine balancing and multi-objective manipulation for legged humanoid robots. IEEE Robot. Autom. Lett. 1(1), 700–707 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. Henze, A. Werner, M. A. Roa, G. Garofalo, J. Englsberger, C. Ott, Control applications of TORO – a torque controlled humanoid robot, in IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2014, pp. 841–841Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. Hirzinger, N. Sporer, A. Albu-Schäffer, M. Haehnle, R. Krenn, A. Pascucci, M. Schedl, DLR’s torque-controlled light weight robot III – are we reaching the technological limits now? in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2002, pp. 1710–1716Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Hirschmüller, Stereo processing by semiglobal matching and mutual information. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 30(2), 328–341 (2008)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Hutter, C. Gehring, M. Bloesch, M. Hoepflinger, C.D. Remy, R. Siegwart, Starleth: a compliant quadrupedal robot for fast, efficient, and versatile locomotion, in 15th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robot – CLAWAR, 2012Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    i-limb revolution prosthetic hand (Online). Available in: http://www.touchbionics.com/products/active-prostheses/i-limb-revolution
  30. 30.
    M. Johnson, B. Shrewsbury, S. Bertrand, T. Wu, D. Duran, M. Floyd, P. Abeles, D. Stephen, N. Mertins, A. Lesman, J. Carff, W. Rifenburgh, P. Kaveti, W. Straatman, J. Smith, M. Griffioen, B. Layton, T. de Boer, T. Koolen, P. Neuhaus, J. Pratt, Team IHMC’s lessons learned from the DARPA robotics challenge trials. J. Field Robot. 32(2), 192–208 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Kajita, F. Kanehiro, K. Kaneko, K. Fujiwara, K. Harada, K. Yokoi, H. Hirukawa, Biped walking pattern generation by using preview control of zero-moment point, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2003, pp. 1620–1626Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Leidner, A. Dietrich, M. Beetz, A. Albu-Schäffer, Knowledge-enabled parameterization of whole-body control strategies for compliant service robots. Auton. Robot. 40, 519–536 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Ott, Cartesian Impedance Control of Redundant and Flexible-Joint Robots. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, vol. 49 (Springer, New York, 2008)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Ott, A. Albu-Schäffer, A. Kugi, G. Hirzinger, On the passivity based impedance control of flexible joint robots. IEEE Trans. Robot. 24(2), 416–429 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    C. Ott, C. Baumgartner, J. Mayr, M. Fuchs, R. Burger, D. Lee, O. Eiberger, A. Albu-Schäffer, M. Grebenstein, G. Hirzinger, Development of a biped robot with torque controlled joints, in International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2010, pp. 167–173Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. Ott, O. Eiberger, W. Friedl, B. Bäuml, U. Hillenbrand, C. Borst, A. Albu-Schäffer, B. Brunner, H. Hirschmüller, S. Kielhoefer, R. Konietschke, M. Suppa, T. Wimböck, F. Zacharias, G. Hirzinger, A humanoid two-arm system for dexterous manipulation, in Proceedings of IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2006, pp. 276–283Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    C. Ott, M.A. Roa, G. Hirzinger, Posture and balance control for biped robots based on contact force optimization, in IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2011, pp. 26–33Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Ott, A. Dietrich, A. Albu-Schäffer, Prioritized multi-task compliance control of redundant manipulators. Automatica 53, 416–423 (2015)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Pratt, J. Carff, S. Drakunov, A. Goswami, Capture point: a step toward humanoid push recovery, in IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2006, pp. 200–207Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. Pratt, B. Krupp, Design of a bipedal walking robot, in Proceedings of SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, vol. 6962, 2008Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    N.A. Radford, P. Strawser, K. Hambuchen, J.S. Mehling, W.K. Verdeyen, S. Donnan, J. Holley, J. Sanchez, V. Nguyen, L. Bridgwater, R. Berka, R. Ambrose, C. McQuin, J.D. Yamokoski, S. Hart, R. Guo, A. Parsons, B. Wightman, P. Dinh, B. Ames, C. Blakely, C. Edmonson, B. Sommers, R. Rea, C. Tobler, H. Bibby, B. Howard, L. Nui, A.Lee, M. Conover, L. Truong, D. Chesney, R. Platt Jr., G. Johnson, C.-L. Fok, N. Paine, L. Sentis, E. Cousineau, R. Sinnet, J. Lack, M. Powell, B. Morris, A. Ames, Valkyrie: NASA’s first bipedal humanoid robot. J. Field Robot. 32(3), 397–419 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    P. Robuffo Giordano, M. Fuchs, A. Albu-Schäffer, G. Hirzinger, On the kinematic modeling and control of a mobile platform equipped with steering wheels and movable legs, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2009, pp. 4080–4087Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    N.G. Tsagarakis, S. Morfey, G. Medrano Cerda, L. Zhibin, D.G. Caldwell, Compliant humanoid COMAN: Optimal joint stiffness tuning for modal frequency control, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2013, pp. 673–678Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    B. Vanderborght, A. Albu-Schäffer, A. Bicchi, E. Burdet, D.G. Caldwell, R. Carloni, M. Catalano, O. Eiberger, W. Friedl, G. Ganesh, M. Garabini, M. Grebenstein, G. Grioli, S. Haddadin, H. Hoppner, A. Jafari, M. Laffranchi, D. Lefeber, F. Petit, S. Stramigioli, N. Tsagarakis, M. Van Damme, R. Van Ham, L.C. Visser, S. Wolf, Variable impedance actuators: a review. Robot. Auton. Syst. 61(12), 1601–1614 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    R. Wagner, U. Fresse, B. Bäuml, Real-time dense multi-scale workspace modeling on a humanoid robot, in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2013, pp. 5164–5171Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. Werner, B. Henze, D.A. Rodriguez, J. Gabaret, O. Porges, M.A. Roa, Multi-contact planning and control for a torque-controlled humanoid robot, in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2016, pp. 5708–5715Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    T. Wimböck. C. Ott, G. Hirzinger, Impedance behaviors for two-handed manipulation: design and experiments, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2007, pp. 4182–4189Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Ott
    • 1
    • 2
  • Máximo A. Roa
    • 1
  • Florian Schmidt
    • 1
  • Werner Friedl
    • 1
  • Johannes Englsberger
    • 1
  • Robert Burger
    • 1
  • Alexander Werner
    • 1
  • Alexander Dietrich
    • 1
  • Daniel Leidner
    • 1
  • Bernd Henze
    • 1
  • Oliver Eiberger
    • 1
  • Alexander Beyer
    • 1
  • Berthold Bäuml
    • 1
  • Christoph Borst
    • 1
  • Alin Albu-Schäffer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Robotics and MechatronicsGerman Aerospace Center (DLR)WesslingGermany
  2. 2.Robotics and Mechatronics Center (RMC)WesslingGermany

Personalised recommendations