• C. Max FinlaysonEmail author
Reference work entry


Mangroves are trees or shrubs that are generally found in intertidal environments in the tropics and subtropics. Most but not all mangroves are found in intertidal environments along deltaic coasts, lagoons, and estuarine shorelines. Under optimal conditions they form extensive and productive forests, reaching 30 m in height, with scattered and dwarf shrubs occurring under less optimal conditions. The origin of the word mangrove is uncertain, but it is commonly used interchangeably to refer to an individual plant or to an assemblage of plants. Mangroves are an ecological rather than a taxonomic assemblage with different numbers of species reported by different authorities. Largely based on whether or not the individual species that are exclusively or nonexclusively found in mangrove communities. The mangrove communities support many other organisms and provide many benefits to people.


Mangroves Mangal Biodiversity Coastal wetlands Coastal change Aquaculture Pollution Climate change 


  1. Alongi DM. Present state and future of the world’s mangrove forests. Environ Conserv. 2002;29:331–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alongi DM. Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci. 2008;76:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alongi DM. Carbon sequestration in mangrove forests. Carbon Manage. 2012;3:313–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dodd RS, Ong JE. Future of mangrove ecosystems. In: Polunin NVC, editor. Aquatic ecosystems: trends and global prospects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 172–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. FAO. The world’s mangroves 1980–2005. A thematic study prepared in the framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment. FAO Forestry Paper 153, Rome; 2007.Google Scholar
  6. Giri C, Ochieng E, Tieszen LL, Zhu Z, Singh A, Loveland T, Masek J, Duke N. Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data. Glob Ecol Biogeogr. 2011;20:154–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Krauss KW, McKee KL, Lovelock CE, Cahoon DR, Saintilan N, Reef R, Chen L. How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level. New Phytol. 2014;202:19–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lucas RM, Ellison JC, Mitchell A, Donnelly B, Finlayson M, Milne AK. Use of stereo aerial photography for quantifying changes in the extent and height of mangroves in tropical Australia. Wetl Ecol Manage. 2002;10:161–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lucas R, Rebelo L-M, Fatoyinbo L, Rosenqvist A, Itoh T, Shimada M, Simard M, Souza-Filho PW, Thomas N, Trettin C, Accad A, Carreiras J, Hilarides L. Contribution of L-band SAR to systematic global mangrove monitoring. Mar Freshw Res. 2014;65:589–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). Ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water synthesis. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute; 2005.Google Scholar
  11. Nagelkerken I, Blaber SJM, Bouillon S, Green P, Haywood M, Kirton LG, Meynecke J-O, Pawlik J, Penrose HM, Sasekumar A, Somerfield PJ. The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marine fauna: a review. Aquat Bot. 2008;89:155–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Saenger P. Mangrove ecology, silviculture and conservation. Dordrecht: Kluwer; 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Spalding M, Blasco F, Field C. World mangrove atlas. Okinawa/Japan: International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems; 1997.Google Scholar
  14. Spalding M, Kainuma M, Collins L. World atlas of mangroves. Oxford: Earthscan; 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. van Bochove J, Sullivan E, Nakamura T, editors. The importance of mangroves to people: a call to action. Cambridge: United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre; 2014.Google Scholar
  16. Van Lavieren H, Spalding M, Alongi D, Kainuma M, Clüsener-Godt M, Adeel Z. Securing the future of mangroves. A policy brief. UNU-INWEH, UNESCO-MAB with ISME, ITTO, FAO, UNEP-WCMC and TNC. London: Earthscan; 2012. p. 319.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Land, Water and SocietyCharles Sturt UniversityAlburyAustralia
  2. 2.UNESCO-IHEThe Institute for Water EducationDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations