Advertisement

The Bay of Fundy and Its Wetlands (Canada)

  • Graham R. Daborn
  • Anna M. Redden
Reference work entry

Abstract

The Bay of Fundy is a highly productive and biologically diverse ecosystem. Noted for the highest tides in the world, it is biologically connected to the Americas, Europe and the Arctic. Its highly productive salt marshes and tidal flats have been extensively modified by human activity, but still provide critical habitat and organic matter supporting numerous migratory species of fish, birds and marine mammals.

Keywords

Hypertidal ecosystem Biodiversity Salt marshes Intertidal mudflats Conservation issues 

References

  1. AECOM. A study to identify preliminary Marine Protected Areas, Bay of Fundy Region. Report prepared for Parks Canada, Ottawa; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. AECOM and ATEI. Tidal energy: strategic environmental assessment update for the Bay of Fundy. Report prepared for Offshore Energy Research Association of Nova Scotia; 2013.Google Scholar
  3. AGS. The last billion years: a geological history of the Maritime Provinces of Canada, Atlantic Geoscience Society Special Publication, vol. 15. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing; 2001.Google Scholar
  4. ATEI. Community and business toolkit for tidal energy development. Acadia Tidal Energy Institute Publication 2013-01. Wolfville: Acadia University; 2013.Google Scholar
  5. Bertness MD, Crain C, Holdredge C, Salas N. Eutrophication and consumer control of New England salt marsh productivity. Conserv Biol. 2008;22:131–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bredin KA, Gerriets SH, Van Guelpen L. Distribution of rare, endangered and keystone marine vertebrate species in Bay of Fundy seascapes. In: Wells PG, Daborn GR, Percy JA, Harvey J, Rolston SJ, editors. Health of the Bay of Fundy: assessing key issues. Proceedings of the 5th Bay of Fundy Science Workshop and Coastal Forum ―Taking the Pulse of the Bay, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, May 13–16, 2002. Environment Canada – Atlantic Region, Occasional Report No. 21, Dartmouth/Sackville/New Brunswick: Environment Canada; 2004, p. 83–98.Google Scholar
  7. Brylinsky M, Daborn GR. Community structure and productivity of the Cornwallis Estuary. Cont Shelf Res. 1987;7:1417–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cabilio P, DeWolfe DL, Daborn GR. Fish catches and long-term tidal cycles in Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: a nonlinear regression approach. Can J Fish Aquat Sci. 1987;44:1890–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell DE, Wroblewski JS. Fundy tidal power development and potential fish production in the Gulf of Maine. Can J Fish Aquat Sci. 1986;43:78–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cranford PJ, Gordon DC, Jarvis CM. Measurement of cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, production in a macrotidal estuary, Bay of Fundy. Estuaries. 1989;12:27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Daborn GR. Effects of tidal mixing on the plankton and benthos of estuarine regions of the Bay of Fundy. In: Bowman MJ, Yentsch CM, Peterson WT, editors. Tidal mixing and plankton dynamics, Lecture notes in coastal and estuarine studies, vol. 17. New York: Springer; 1986. p. 390–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Daborn GR. Homage to Penelope: unravelling the ecology of the Bay of Fundy system. In: Poehle GW, Wells PG, Rolston SJ, editors. Challenges in environmental management in the Bay of Fundy – Gulf of Maine. Proceedings of the 7th Bay of Fundy Workshop, St. Andrews, NB, 24–27 October 2006. Bay of Fundy Ecosystem Partnership Technical Report No. 3. Wolfville: Bay of Fundy Ecosystem Partnership; 2007, p. 12–22.Google Scholar
  13. Daborn GR, Dadswell MJ. Natural and anthropogenic changes in the Bay of Fundy – Gulf of Maine – Georges Bank system. In: El-Sabh MI, Murty TS, editors. Natural and man-made hazards. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company; 1988. p. 547–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daborn GR, Gregory RS. Occurrence, distribution and feeding habits of juvenile lumpfish, Cyclopterus lumpus L., in the Bay of Fundy. Can J Zool. 1983;64:797–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daborn GR, Redden AM. A century of tidal power research in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, and the enabling role of research networks. J Ocean Technol. 2009;IV(4):1–5.Google Scholar
  16. Daborn GR, Amos CD, Brylinsky M, Christian H, Drapeau G, Faas RW, Grant J, Long B, Paterson DM, Perillo GME, Piccolo MC. An ecological cascade effect: migratory shorebirds affect stability of intertidal sediments. Limnol Oceanogr. 1993;38:225–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Day JC, Roff JC. Planning for representative marine protected areas: a framework for Canada’s oceans. Report for the World Wildlife Fund, Toronto; 2000.Google Scholar
  18. Desplanque C, Mossman DJ. Tides and their seminal impact on the geology, geography, history and socio-economics of the Bay of Fundy, Eastern Canada. Atl Geol. 2004;40:1–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Emerson CW, Roff JC, Wildish DJ. Pelagic-benthic energy coupling at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy. Ophelia. 1986;26:165–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garrett CJR, Keeley JR, Greenberg DA. Tidal mixing versus thermal stratification in the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine. Atmosphere-Ocean. 1978;16:403–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gordon DC, Prouse NJ, Cranford PJ. Occurrence of Spartina macrodetritus in Bay of Fundy waters. Estuaries. 1985;8(3):290–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greenberg DA, Petrie BD, Daborn GR, FaderGB. The physical environment of the Bay of Fundy. In: Percy JA, Wells PG, Evans AJ, editors. Bay of Fundy issues: a scientific overview. Atlantic Region Occasional Report No. 8. Sackville/New Brunswick: Environment Canada; 1997, p. 11–34.Google Scholar
  23. Hagerman G, Fader G, Carlin G, Bedard R. Nova Scotia tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) survey and characterization of potential sites. EPRI North American Tidal Flow Power Feasibility Demonstration Project, Phase 1 – Project Definition Study, Report EPRI-TP-003 NS Rev 2; 2006. Electrical Power Research Institute, Washington, DC 20005Google Scholar
  24. Hamilton DJ, Barbeau MA, Diamond AW. Shorebirds, snails and Corophium in the Upper Bay of Fundy: predicting bird activity on intertidal mudflats. Can J Zool. 2003;81:1358–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jacques Whitford. Background report for the Fundy tidal energy strategic environmental assessment. Final Report presented to the Offshore Energy Environmental Research Association, Halifax; 2008.Google Scholar
  26. Kirwan ML, Matthew L, Guntenspergen GR, Morris JT. Latitudinal trends in Spartina alterniflora productivity and the response of coastal marshes to global change. Glob Chang Biol. 2009;15(8):1982–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Prouse NJ, Gordon DC, Hargrave BT, Bird CJ, MacLachlan J, Lakshminarayana JSS, Sita Diva L, Thomas MLH. Primary production: organic matter supply to ecosystems in the Bay of Fundy. In: Gordon DC, Dadswell MJ, editors. Update on the marine environmental consequences of tidal power development in the upper reaches of the Bay of Fundy, Canadian technical report of fisheries and aquatic sciences, Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada; vol. 1256; 1984. p. 65–95.Google Scholar
  28. Redfield AC. Development of a New England salt marsh. Ecol Monogr. 1972;42:201–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Silliman BR, Bertness MD. A trophic cascade regulates salt marsh primary production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(16):10500–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Silliman BR, Bortolus A. Underestimation of Spartina productivity in Western Atlantic marshes: marsh invertebrates eat more than just detritus. Oikos. 2003;101:549–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wells PG. Environmental impacts of barriers on rivers entering the Bay of Fundy. Report of an ad hoc Environment Canada Working Group, Technical report series, vol. 334. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service; 1999.Google Scholar
  32. Wildish DJ, Fader GBJ. Pelagic-benthic coupling in the Bay of Fundy. Hydrobiologia. 1998;375/376:369–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wildish DJ, Akagi HM, Fader GBJ. Horse mussel reef project in the Inner Bay of Fundy. In: Ollerhead J, Hicklin PW, Wells PG, Ramsey K, editors. Understanding change in the Bay of Fundy ecosystem. Proceedings of the 3rd Bay of Fundy Science Workshop, Mount Alison University, Sackville, N.B. Environment Canada, Atlantic Region Occasional Report No. 12. Sackville: Environment Canada; 1999, p. 21–2.Google Scholar
  34. Wrathall C, van Proosdij D, Lundholm J. 2013. Assessment of primary productivity in the Windsor salt marsh. Report of the Environmental Science Program and Department of Geography, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax; 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Acadia Centre for Estuarine ResearchAcadia UniversityWolfvilleCanada

Personalised recommendations