Entities That Can Present as IU/Vitritis
Different terminologies have evolved over the years to describe inflammation of the ciliary body, such as cyclitis, vitritis, and peripheral uveitis. As per the “International Uveitis Study Group” (IUSG) and “Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature” (SUN), the term “intermediate uveitis” (IU) is an anatomical classification, and refers to inflammation mainly involving the anterior vitreous, ciliary body, and peripheral retina, with minimal or no inflammation of the anterior or posterior segment. Various entities (infectious or noninfectious) can present as IU or vitritis, such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Lyme disease, and multiple sclerosis. Pars planitis is an idiopathic subset of IU, characterized by vitreous cells, snow balls, and snow banks, which is almost always bilateral with no posterior synechiae. The disease usually begins with mild visual symptoms like floaters or blurred vision, and the eyes are white with no pain. Cystoid macular edema is a well-known complication affecting vision adversely in late stages. The diagnosis is challenging, and prognosis is variable. While corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy, recalcitrant or recurrent cases need immunosuppressive therapy.