Punctate Inner Choroidopathy (PIC)

  • Arash Maleki
  • Muhammad Sohail Halim
  • Quan Dong NguyenEmail author
Living reference work entry


Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC) is mostly a bilateral, multifocal chorioretinopathy which affects predominantly young myopic Caucasian women. Characteristic fundus lesions are small, well-demarcated yellow-gray chorioretinal lesions (100–300 μm) mostly limited to the posterior pole at the level of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and inner choroid. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and subretinal fibrosis are the two sight-threatening complications associated with punctate inner choroidopathy. Treatment varies from observation (if the disease is stable without progression) to immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) and/or anti-VEGF therapy based on the extent, recurrences of activity, and associated complications.

Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arash Maleki
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muhammad Sohail Halim
    • 1
  • Quan Dong Nguyen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Byers Eye InstituteStanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.Noor Ophthalmology Research CenterNoor Eye HospitalTehranIran

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