Monocotyledons pp 965-982 | Cite as


  • F. KrappEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants book series (SUCCPLANTS)


A diagnostic description of the genus is given with special emphasis on the occurrence of succulence amongst its species. The geographical distribution is outlined, together with a selection of important literature, and an explanation of the etymology of the name. This is followed by a short summary of its position in the phylogeny of the family and of the past and present classification in a phylogenetic context. The succulent features present amongst the species of the genus are shortly explained as to morphology and anatomy.

This is followed by a synoptical treatment of the species (all succulent) of the genus, complete with typification details, full synonymy, geographical and ecological data, a diagnostic description, and, where applicable, notes on phylogenetic placement and relationships, as well as economic and/or horticultural importance.


  1. Aguilar-Rodríguez, P. A. [& al. 2014], Krömer, T. & MacSwiney G., M. C. (2014) The secrets of night-blooming bromeliads and bats. J. Bromeliad Soc. 64(3): 156–165, ills.Google Scholar
  2. Braun, P. J. (2005) Reise zum Fundort von Encholirium eddie-estevesii (Bromeliaceae) in Zentral-Brasilien. Kakt. and. Sukk. 56(2): 50–53, ills.Google Scholar
  3. Braun, P. J. & Esteves Pereira, E. (2006) Succulent and xeromorphic Bromeliads of Brazil. Part 3. Encholirium maximum, Orthophytum burle-marxii and Dyckia goehringii. Cact. Succ. J. (US) 78(4): 160–164, ills.[160:SAXBOB]2.0.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braun, P. J. & Esteves Pereira, E. (2017) Ein [sic!] neue felsbewohnende Art der Gattung Encholirium aus dem äussersten Norden von Minas Gerais, Brasilien/A new rupicolous species of Encholirium from the uppermost north of Minas Gerais, Brazil: Encholirium viride. Bromelie 2017(1): 4–10, ills.Google Scholar
  5. Braun, P. J. & Esteves Pereira, E. (2018) Eine neue, isoliert wachsende Encholirium Art aus dem Norden von Goiás (Zentral-Brasilien)/A new isolated growing species of Encholirium from northern Goiás (central Brazil): Encholirium josinoi-narcisae. Bromelie 2018(1): 32–38, ills.Google Scholar
  6. Cavallari, M. M. [& al. 2006], Forzza, R. C., Veasey, E. A., Zucchi, M. I. & Oliveira, G. C. X. (2006) Genetic variation in three endangered species of Encholirium (Bromeliaceae) from Cadeia do Espinhaço, Brazil, detected using RAPD markers. Biodivers. & Conservation 15: 4357–4373.
  7. Christianini, A. V. [& al. 2013], Forzza, R. C. & Buzato, S. (2013) Divergence on floral traits and vertebrate pollinators of two endemic Encholirium bromeliads. Pl. Biol. (Stuttgart) 15(2): 360–368, ills.
  8. Forzza, R. C. (2005) Revisão taxonômica de Encholirium Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Pitcairnioideae — Bromeliaceae). Bol. Bot. Univ. São Paulo 23(1): 1–49, ills., keys.
  9. Forzza, R. C. & Zappi, D. C. (2011) Side by side: Two remarkable new species of Encholirium Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae) found in the Cadeia do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Kew Bull. 66(2): 281–287, ills., key. Scholar
  10. Gonçalves-Oliveira, R. C. [& al. 2017], Wöhrmann, T., Benko-Iseppon, A. M., Krapp, F., Alves, M., Wanderley, M. G. L. & Weising, K. (2017) Population genetic structure of the rock outcrop species Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae): The role of pollination vs. seed dispersal and evolutionary implications. Amer. J. Bot. 104(6): 868–878, map.
  11. Hmeljevski, K. V. [& al. 2015], Reis, M. S. dos & Forzza, R. C. (2015) Patterns of gene flow in Encholirium horridum L. B. Sm., a monocarpic species of Bromeliaceae from Brazil. J. Heredity 106(1): 93–101.
  12. Krapp, F. [& al. 2014], Pinangé, D. S. de B., Benko-Iseppon, A. M., Leme, E. M. C. & Weising, K. (2014) Phylogeny and evolution of Dyckia (Bromeliaceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 300(7): 1591–1614, ills., maps.
  13. Las-Casas, F. M. G. [& al. 2012], Azevedo Júnior, S. M. & Dias Filho, M. M. (2012) The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation. Brazil. J. Biol. 72(1): 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Leal, F. C. [& al. 2006], Lopes, A. V. & Machado, I. C. (2006) Polinização por beija-flores em uma area de caatinga no Municipio de Floresta, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Revista Brasil. Bot. 29(3): 379–389.
  15. Miller, L. J. (2009) There’s more than just cacti in eastern Brazil: Some bromeliads we encountered. Cact. Succ. J. (US) 81(3): 122–125, ills.
  16. Nascimento, V. T. do [& al. 2012], Vasconcelos, M. A. da S., Maciel, M. I. S. & Albuquerque, U. P. (2012) Famine foods of Brazil’s seasonal dry forests: Ethnobotanical and nutritional aspects. Econ. Bot. 66(1): 22–34, ills.
  17. Queiroz, J. A. [& al. 2016], Quirino, Z. G. M., Lopes, A. V. & Machado, I. C. (2016) Vertebrate mixed pollination system in Encholirium spectabile: A bromeliad pollinated by bats, opossum and hummingbirds in a tropical dry forest. J. Arid Environm. 125: 21–30, ills.
  18. Sazima, I. [& al. 1989], Vogel, S. & Sazima, M. (1989) Bat pollination of Encholirium glaziovii, a terrestrial bromeliad. Pl. Syst. Evol. 168(3–4): 167–179, ills.
  19. Schütz, N. [& al. 2016], Krapp, F., Wagner, N. & Weising, K. (2016) Phylogenetics of Pitcairnioideae s.s. (Bromeliaceae): Evidence from nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 181(3): 323–342, maps, ills.
  20. Siqueiro Filho, J. A. & Leme, E. M. C. (2007) Fragments of the Atlantic forest of Northeast Brazil: Biodiversity, conservation and the Bromeliads. Rio de Janeiro (BR): Andrea Jakobsson Estúdio.Google Scholar
  21. Smith, L. B. & Downs, R. J. (1974) Flora Neotropica. Monograph No. 14 [Bromeliaceae]. Part 1: Pitcairnioideae. New York (US): Hafner Press & New York Botanical Garden.
  22. Zappi, D. C. & Taylor, N. P. (2011) A new species of Pilosocereus subgenus Gounellea, P. frewenii, from SE Brazil. Bradleya 29: 131–136, ills.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GuxhagenGermany

Personalised recommendations