Encyclopedia of Continuum Mechanics

Living Edition
| Editors: Holm Altenbach, Andreas Öchsner

Design for Reliability of Electronic Materials and Systems

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53605-6_372-1


Reliability is the probability that a product will continue to work normally over a specified interval of time, under specified conditions.

Electronic materials are materials related to electronics or to devices, circuits, or systems developed through electronics.

Electronic systems are engineering systems, mostly hardware, concerned with, using, or operated by devices, such as transistors or valves, in which electrons are conducted through a semiconductor.

Analytical Modeling in the Design-for-Reliability of Electronic Systems

Application of analytical (“mathematical”) modeling (see, e.g., Suhir 1989, 2009a, 2011a, b, cd, 2015) enables to reveal and explain the underlying physics associated with often nonobvious, always nontrivial, and sometimes even paradoxical problems and situations in the design-for-reliability (DfR) problems in electronic materials science. Analytical modeling occupies a special place in the predictive modeling effort. Analytical modeling is able...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Christiaens W, Vandevelde B, Bosman E, Vanfleteren J (2006) Ultra-thin chip package (UTCP): 60 μm thick bendable chip package. In: 3rd internation conference on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP)Google Scholar
  2. Luryi S, Suhir E (1986) A new approach to the high-quality epitaxial growth of lattice – mismatched materials. Appl Phys Lett 49(3):140–142Google Scholar
  3. Suhir E (1985) Linear and nonlinear vibrations caused by periodic impulses. In: AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS 26th structures, structural dynamics and materials conference, Orlando, AprGoogle Scholar
  4. Suhir E (1986) Stresses in bi-metal thermostats. ASME J Appl Mech 53(3):657–660Google Scholar
  5. Suhir E (1989) Analytical modeling in structural analysis for electronic packaging: its merits, shortcomings and interaction with experimental and numerical techniques. ASME J Electr Pack 111(2):157–161Google Scholar
  6. Suhir E (1991) Nonlinear dynamic response of a flexible printed circuit board to shock loads applied to its support contour. 41-st ECTC, May 1991Google Scholar
  7. Suhir E (1992a) Response of a flexible printed circuit board to periodic shock loads applied to its support contour. ASME J Appl Mech 59(2):S253–S259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Suhir E (1992b) Nonlinear dynamic response of a flexible thin plate to constant acceleration applied to its support contour, with application to printed circuit boards used in avionic packaging. Int J Solids Struct 29(1):41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Suhir E (1992c) Mechanical behavior and reliability of solder joint interconnections in thermally matched assemblies. 42-nd ECTC, MayGoogle Scholar
  10. Suhir E (1992d) Predicted bow of plastic packages of integrated circuit (IC) devices. 50-th SPE conference, Detroit, MayGoogle Scholar
  11. Suhir E (1995a) How compliant should a die-attachment be to protect the chip from substrate (card) bowing? ASME JElectrPack 117(1):88–92Google Scholar
  12. Suhir E (1995b) Shock protection with a nonlinear spring. IEEE CPMT Trans Adv Pack Part B 18(2):430–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Suhir E (1996a) Dynamic response of a one-degree-of-freedom linear system to a shock load during drop tests: effect of viscous damping. IEEE CPMT Trans Part A 19(3):54Google Scholar
  14. Suhir E (1996b) Shock-excited vibrations of a conservative duffing oscillator with application to shock protection in portable electronics. Int J Solids Struct 33(24):3627–3642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Suhir E (1997) Is the maximum acceleration an adequate criterion of the dynamic strength of a structural element in an electronic product? IEEE CPMT Trans Part A 20(4):513–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Suhir E (1998) Adhesively bonded assemblies with identical non-deformable adherends and inhomogeneous adhesive layer: predicted thermal stresses in the adhesive. J Reinf Plast Compos 17(14):1588–1606Google Scholar
  17. Suhir E (1999) Adhesively bonded assemblies with identical non-deformable adherends: predicted thermal stresses in the adhesive layer. Compos Interfaces 6(2):135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Suhir E (2000a) Predicted stresses in, and the bow of, a circular substrate/thin-film system subjected to the change in temperature. J Appl Phys 88(5):2363–2370Google Scholar
  19. Suhir E (2000b) Adhesively bonded assemblies with identical non-deformable adherends and “piecewise continuous” adhesive layer: predicted thermal stresses and displacements in the adhesive. Int J Solids Struct 37:2229–2252Google Scholar
  20. Suhir E (2001) Device and method of controlling the bowing of a soldered or adhesively bonded assembly. US Patent #6,239,382Google Scholar
  21. Suhir E (2002) Could shock tests adequately mimic drop test conditions? ASME J Electr Pack 124:170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Suhir E (2003) Bow free adhesively bonded assemblies: predicted stresses. Electrotechnik Informationtechnik 120(6):195–199Google Scholar
  23. Suhir E (2009a) Analytical thermal stress modeling in electronic and photonic systems. ASME AMR 62(4)Google Scholar
  24. Suhir E (2009b) On a paradoxical situation related to bonded joints: could stiffer mid-portions of a compliant attachment result in lower thermal stress? JSME J Solid Mech Mat Eng (JSMME) 3(7):313–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Suhir E (2009c) Thermal stress in a bi-material assembly with a “piecewise-continuous” bonding layer: theorem of three axial forces. J Appl Phys D 42:27–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Suhir E (2009d) Stretchable electronics: does one need a good thermal expansion match between the Si die and the plastic carrier? 59-th ECTC 2009Google Scholar
  27. Suhir E (2009e) Stretchable electronics: predicted thermo-mechanical stresses in the die. Vol. dedicated to the 60-th birthday of Prof. B. Michel, Fraunhofer Institute, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  28. Suhir E (2010) Predicted stresses in die-carrier assemblies in stretchable electronics: is there an incentive for using a compliant bond? ZAMM 10Google Scholar
  29. Suhir E (2011a) Linear response to shocks and vibrations. In: Suhir E, Steinberg D, Yu T (eds) Structural dynamics of electronic and photonic systems. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Suhir E (2011b) Predictive modeling of the dynamic response of electronic systems to shocks and vibrations. ASME Appl Mech Rev 63(5):050803MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Suhir E (2011c) Predictive modeling is a powerful means to prevent thermal stress failures in electronics and photonics. ChipScale Rev 15(4)Google Scholar
  32. Suhir E (2011d) Stresses in bi-material GaN assemblies. J Appl Phys 110:Article ID 074506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Suhir E (2011e) Predicted response of the die-carrier assembly to the combined action of tension and bending applied to the carrier in flexible electronics. ASME J Appl Mech 79(1)Google Scholar
  34. Suhir E (2011f) Analysis of a pre-stressed bi-material accelerated life test (ALT) specimen. ZAMM 91(5):371MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Suhir E (2013a) Lattice-misfit stresses in a circular bi-material GaN assembly. ASME J Appl Mech 80:4505Google Scholar
  36. Suhir E (2013b) Thermal stress in a multi-leg thermoelectric module (TEM) design. In: Hetnarski R (ed) Encyclopedia of thermal stresses. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Suhir E (2015a) Predicted thermal and lattice-mismatch stresses. In: Nishinaga T, Kuech TF (eds) Handbook of crystal growth, vol 3, 2nd edn. North-Holland, BostonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suhir E (2015b) Stress related aspects of the physics of GaN material growth. SPIE, San-FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  39. Suhir E (2015c) Analysis of a short beam with application to solder joints: could larger stand-off heights relieve stress? Eur Phys J Appl Phys (EPJAP) 71:31301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Suhir E (2015d) Predicted stresses in a ball-grid-array (BGA)/column-grid-array (CGA) assembly with low modulus solder at its ends. JMSE 26(12):9680–9688Google Scholar
  41. Suhir E (2016a) Predicted lattice-misfit stresses in a Gallium-Nitride (GaN) film. Int.Rel.Phys.Symp., PasadenaGoogle Scholar
  42. Suhir E (2016b) Bi-material assembly with a low-modulus-and/or-low-fabrication-temperature bonding material at its ends: optimized stress relief. JMSE 27(5):4816–4825Google Scholar
  43. Suhir E (2016c) Expected stress relief in a bi-material inhomogeneously bonded assembly with a low-modulus-and/or-low-fabrication-temperature bonding material at the ends. JMSE 27(6):5563–5574Google Scholar
  44. Suhir E (2016d) Probabilistic Palmgren-miner rule, with application to solder materials experiencing elastic deformations. JMSE (in print)Google Scholar
  45. Suhir E, Arruda L (2010) Could an impact load of finite duration acting on a Duffing oscillator be substituted with an instantaneous impulse? JSME J Solid Mech Mater Eng (JSMME) 4(9)Google Scholar
  46. Suhir E, Nicolics J (2014) Analysis of a bow-free pre-stressed test specimen. ASME J Appl Mech 81(11):114502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Suhir E, Reinikainen T (2008) On a paradoxical situation related to lap shear joints: could transverse grooves in the adherends lead to lower interfacial stresses? J Appl Physics D 41:115505Google Scholar
  48. Suhir E, Shakouri A (2013) Predicted thermal stresses in a multi-leg thermoelectric module (TEM) design. ASME J Appl Mech 80Google Scholar
  49. Suhir E, Weld J (1997) Electronic package with reduced bending stress. US Patent #5,627,407Google Scholar
  50. Suhir E, Gu C, Cao L (2011a) Predicted thermal stress in a circular adhesively bonded assembly with identical adherends. ASME J Appl Mech 79(1):7–18Google Scholar
  51. Suhir E, Steinberg D, Yu T, eds (2011b) Dynamic response of electronic and photonic systems to shocks and vibrations. WileyGoogle Scholar
  52. Suhir E, Bechou L, Levrier B (2013) Predicted size of an inelastic zone in a ball-grid-array assembly. ASME J Appl Mech 80:021007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Suhir E, Bechou L, Nicolics J (2015a) Thermal stress in an electronic package sandwiched between two identical substrates. In: IEEE Aerospace conference, Big Sky, Montana, 5–12 Mar 2015Google Scholar
  54. Suhir E, Khatibi G, Nicolics J (2015b) Predictive modeling of the lattice-misfit stresses in GaN film grown on a circular substrate. In: MPPE conference, Leoben, 3–5 NovGoogle Scholar
  55. Suhir E, Ghaffarian R, Nicolics J (2015c) Could application of column-grid-array technology result in inelastic-strain-free state-of-stress in solder material? JMSE 26:10062. published on line, 4 SeptGoogle Scholar
  56. Suhir E, Bensoussan A, Nicolics J (2015d) Bow-free pre-stressed ALT specimen. In: SAE conference, Seattle, 22–24 SeptGoogle Scholar
  57. Suhir E, Ghaffarian R, Bechou L, Nicolics J (2016a) Column-grid-array (CGA) technology could lead to a highly reliable package design. In: IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, 5–12 MarGoogle Scholar
  58. Suhir E, Ghaffarian R, Nicolics J (2016b) Could thermal stresses in an inhomogeneous BGA/CGA system be predicted using a model for a homogeneously bonded assembly? JMSE 27(1):570–579Google Scholar
  59. Suhir E, Ghaffarian R, Nicolics J (2016c) Predicted stresses in ball-grid-array (BGA) and column-grid-array (CGA) interconnections in a mirror-like package design. JMSE 27(3):2430–2441Google Scholar
  60. Zhou C-Y, Yu T-X, Suhir E (2009) Design of shock table tests to mimic real-life drop conditions. IEEE CPMT Trans 32(4):832–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Portland State UniversityPortlandUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Ephraim Suhir
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Mech. and Mat., and Elect. and Comp. EngineeringPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA