Encyclopedia of Continuum Mechanics

Living Edition
| Editors: Holm Altenbach, Andreas Öchsner

Carbon Nanotubes

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53605-6_212-1



Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are hollow cylindrical graphite structures with usually closed ends made of one (single-walled) or more (multiwalled) concentric cylindrical layers. CNTs have a high aspect ratio greater than 1000. The diameter lies in nanometer scale having the range from 0.5 nm to 2 nm for single-walled structures and is greater than several nm for multiwalled nanotubes, and the length even in microsize. Carbon nanotubes are the most studied carbon structures due to their outstanding mechanical, electrical, optical, and chemical properties what offer a broad range of possible applications.


In the 1970s during decomposition of hydrocarbons, small diameter carbon fibers were observed, but because of limitation on characterization and measurement they were not described (Ma and Kim 2011). Later, in 1991 new tubular carbon nanostructures were observed and characterized by Iijima (1991). During the analysis of the...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringCracow University of Technology, Institute of Machine DesignCracowPoland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Victor A. Eremeyev
    • 1
  1. 1.Gdańsk University of TechnologyGdańskPoland