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Nekrotisierende Enterokolitis

  • Martin Lacher
Living reference work entry
Part of the Springer Reference Medizin book series (SRM)

Zusammenfassung

Die nekrotisierende Enterokolitis (NEC) ist die häufigste lebensbedrohliche, gastrointestinale Störung in der Neonatalperiode. Es sind fast immer Früh- und Neugeborene auf der Intensivstation (NICU) betroffen. Die meisten Fälle sind sporadisch, ein epidemisches Auftreten ist jedoch in Assoziation mit aeroben und anaeroben Bakterien sowie Viren beschrieben. Mit wenigen Ausnahmen tritt die NEC meist ab der zweiten Lebenswoche auf und häufig nach dem Beginn enteraler Nahrung. Die Diagnose basiert auf charakteristischen klinischen, laborchemischen sowie radiologischen Zeichen. Therapeutisch ist die orale/enterale Ernährung zu beenden; per Magensonde lässt sich der meist galliger Mageninhalt absaugen. Eine Antibiotikatherapie ist angezeigt. Probiotika und Inhibitoren inflammatorischer Signalwege wurden untersucht. Etwa die Hälfte der Kinder mit NEC benötigt eine Operation, meist wegen einer Darmperforation mit Pneumoperitoneum oder der Notwendigkeit, nekrotisches Darmgewebe zu entfernen. Je reifer das Kind bei Geburt ist, desto besser ist die Prognose.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Klinik und Poliklinik für KinderchirurgieUniversitätsklinikum LeipzigLeipzigDeutschland

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