CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2019 Edition
| Editors: Sami Chatti, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart, Tullio Tolio

Incremental Forming

  • Alexander BrosiusEmail author
Reference work entry


The forming process is characterized by a gradual forming of the sheet, which is restricted to a small plastic zone. Nonsymmetric shapes can also be obtained by using a simply hemispheric tool in combination with a robot or a conventional CNC milling machine.

Theory and Application


Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a forming process similar to shear forming that allows a flexible, cost-efficient, and timely implementation of a CAD model to a real part. It was developed to meet the market demands of an efficient production of small batches, customized parts, and prototypes.

While the first attempts for manufacturing parts with a similar method are already mentioned in the patent of Leszak (Leszak 1967), the scientific investigations followed first in the 1990s by Kitazawa (Kitazawa and Nakajima 1999), thus benefiting the introduction of CAD and CAM systems and the automation with CNC machines.

Process Description and Variants

The working principle of ISF using a...
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Copyright information

© CIRP 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Manufacturing Science and EngineeringTU DresdenDresdenGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Bernd-Arno Behrens
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Forming Technology and Machines (IFUM), Leibniz Universität Hannover (LUH)GarbsenGermany