CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2019 Edition
| Editors: Sami Chatti, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart, Tullio Tolio

Chip Formation (Abrasive Process)

  • Fritz KlockeEmail author
  • Frederik Vits
Reference work entry


The chip formation in abrasive processes defines the local interaction between abrasive grains and workpiece material in combination with the surrounding fluid media (cooling lubricant or air). It can mainly be distinguished between brittle and ductile removal mechanisms.

Theory and Application

The common removal mechanisms in grinding can be divided into ductile material removal and brittle material removal. For ductile materials, the chip formation can be distinguished in three zones beginning with zone one, where elastic deformation takes place (see Figs. 1 and 2 left). Because of the shape of the grain, the rake angle is very small at the beginning of the engagement. As the grain continues to penetrate the material, the stress exceeds the yield strength which results in a development of plastic strain. This is labeled as zone two on the left side of Fig. 1. In zone three, the grain penetrates deeper until the chipping thickness h cu corresponds to the grain cutting depth T
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Copyright information

© CIRP 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL), RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  2. 2.Research Area Manufacturing Technology - Research Group GrindingLaboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) of RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Konrad Wegener
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigung (IWF)ETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland