CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering

2019 Edition
| Editors: Sami Chatti, Luc Laperrière, Gunther Reinhart, Tullio Tolio

Smart Products

  • Michael AbramoviciEmail author
Reference work entry



Smart Products are cyber-physical products/systems (CPS) which additionally use and integrate internet-based services in order to perform a required functionality. CPS are defined as “intelligent” mechatronic products/systems capable of communicating and interacting with other CPS by using different communication channels, i.e., the internet or wireless LAN (Lee 2010; Rajkumar et al. 2010).

Theory and Application

Definition of Products

The term product [lat. productus] has a diversity of meanings in the context of different disciplines. For example, in mathematics, a product is the result of a multiplication. In chemistry, the term “product” refers to substances resulting from chemical reactions. In economics, the gross domestic product (GDM) measures the economic performance of a country or region. In marketing, a product is defined as anything that can be offered to a market and might satisfy a want or need (Kotler and Keller 2006).

The definition of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Abramovici M, Stark R (eds) (2013) Smart product engineering: proceedings of the 23rd CIRP design conference, Bochum, Germany, March 11–13, 2013. Springer, Heidelberg/New York/Dordrecht/LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Abramovici M, Göbel JC, Neges M (2014) Smart engineering as enabler for the 4th industrial revolution. Paper presented at the 6th international conference on Integrated Systems Design and Technology (ISDT), Berkeley, 26–27 Mar 2014Google Scholar
  3. Baheti R, Gill H (2011) Cyber-physical systems. In: Samad T, Annaswamy AM (eds) The impact of control technology: overview, success stories, and research challenges. IEEE Control Systems Society, pp 161–166Google Scholar
  4. Deutsches Institut für Normung (2005) DIN EN ISO 9000: Qualitätsmanagementsysteme, Grundlagen und Begriffe [Quality management systems – fundamentals and vocabulary]. Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  5. European Commission (2014) Horizon 2020. Accessed 22 Nov 2014
  6. INCOSE (2014) International council on systems engineering. Accessed 22 Nov 2014
  7. Kagermann H, Wahlster W, Helbig J (2013) Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0. Acatech, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  8. Kagermann H, Riemensperger F, Hoke D, Helbig J et al (2014) Smart service welt: recommendations for the strategic initiative web-based services for businesses. Acatech, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  9. Kotler P, Keller KL (2006) Marketing-management, 12th edn. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  10. Lee EA (2010) CPS foundations. In: Sepatnekar S (ed) Proceedings of the 47th Design Automation Conference (DAC), Anaheim CA, USA, June 13–18, 2010. ACM/IEEE, New York, pp 737–742Google Scholar
  11. Meier H, Roy R, Seliger G (2010) Industrial product-service systems (IPS2). CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 59(2):607–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Neugebauer R, Denkena B, Wegener K (2007) Mechatronic systems for machine tools. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 56(2):657–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. NSF (2012) NSF 12–520 cyber-physical systems (CPS) program solicitation. National Science Foundation, Arlington. Accessed 6 Nov 2013
  14. Rajkumar R, Lee I, Sha L, Stankovic J (2010) Cyber-physical systems: the next computing revolution. In: Sepatnekar S (ed) Proceedings of the 47th Design Automation Conference (DAC), Anaheim CA, USA, June 13–18, 2010. ACM/IEEE, New York, pp 731–736Google Scholar
  15. SMLC Smart Manufacturing Leadership Coalition (2014) Smart manufacturing leadership. Accessed 22 Nov 2014
  16. VDI Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (2004) VDI 2206: design methodology for mechatronic systems (VDI guideline). Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  17. Webster Dictionary (2014) Smart. Accessed 22 Nov 2014

Copyright information

© CIRP 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für MaschinenbauinformatikRuhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany