Komplexe Dynamik der Komorbidität Schizophrenie und Cannabiskonsum

  • Thomas SchnellEmail author
Living reference work entry


Komorbider Cannabiskonsum ist insbesondere bei jüngeren Patienten mit Schizophrenie sehr häufig. Prominente Erklärungsmodelle umfassen die Affektregulationshypothese, Psychoseinduktion durch spezifische Cannabinoide und gemeinsame Faktoren, die das Auftreten beider Störungen erklären. Die Behandlung ist schwierig. Am ehesten scheinen komplexe Konzepte erfolgreich, die beide Störungen integriert behandeln, sowie Elemente zur Steigerung der Änderungsmotivation, Psychoedukation und Verhaltenstherapie kombinieren. Hinsichtlich der Pharmakotherapie gibt es Medikamente, die sowohl antipsychotisch wirken und gleichzeitig die Suchtkomponente günstig beeinflussen.


Ätiologie Cannabis Komorbidität Schizophrenie Therapie 


  1. Addington, J., & Duchak, V. (1997). Reasons for substance use in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 96, 329–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aderhold, V. (2015). Neuroleptika minimal. dosisabhängige risiken der medikamentösen therapie bei psychosen. PiD, 3, 75–80.Google Scholar
  3. Ajdacic-Gross, V., Lauber, C., Warnke, I., Haker, H., Murray, R. M., & Rössler, W. (2007). Changing incidence of psychotic disorders among the young in Zurich. Schizophrenia Research, 95(1−3), 9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allebeck, P., Adamsson, C., Engstrom, A., & Rydberg, U. (1993). Cannabis and schizophrenia: A longitudinal study of cases treated in Stockholm County. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 88, 21–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andreasson, S., Allebeck, P., Engstrom, A., & Rydberg, U. (1987). Cannabis and schizophrenia. A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts. Lancet, 2, 1483–1486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Poulton, R., Murray, R., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2002). Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: Longitudinal prospective study. BMG, 325, 1212–1213.Google Scholar
  7. Barnes, T. R., Mutsatsa, S. H., Hutton, S. B., Watt, H. C., & Joyce, E. M. (2006). Comorbid substance use and age at onset of schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 237–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartels, S. J., Drake, R. E., & Wallach, M. A. (1995). Long-term course of substance use disorders among patients with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 46, 248–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blanchard, J. J., Brown, S. A., Horan, W. P., & Sherwood, A. R. (2000). Substance use disorders in schizophrenia: review, integration, and a proposed model. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 207–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blanchard, J. J., Squires, D., Henry, T., Horan, W. P., Bogenschutz, M., Lauriello, J., et al. (1999). Examining an affect regulation model of substance abuse in schizophrenia. The role of traits and coping. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187, 72–79.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Bossong, M. G., & Niesink, R. J. (2010). Adolescent brain maturation, the endogenous cannabinoid system and the neurobiology of cannabis-induced schizophrenia. Progress in Neurobiology, 92(3), 370–385.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bowers, M. B. (1987). The role of drugs in the production of schizophreniform psychoses and related disorders. In H. Y. Meltzer (Hrsg.), Psychopharmacology: The third generation of progress (S. 819–823). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  13. Boydell, J., van Os, J., Caspi, A., Kennedy, N., Giouroukou, E., Fearon, P., et al. (2006). Trends in cannabis use prior to first presentation with schizophrenia, in South-East London between 1965 and 1999. Psychological Medicine, 36, 1441–1446.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, E. S., Nejtek, V. A., Perantie, D. C., Rajan, T. N., & Rush, A. J. (2003). Cocaine and amphetamine use in patients with psychiatric illness: A randomized trial of typical antipsychotic continuation or discontinuation. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 23, 384–388.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., Xie, H., & Drake, R. E. (1997). Relationships between symptoms of schizophrenia and substance abuse. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185, 13–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Cannon, M., McClay, J., Murray, R., Harrington, H., et al. (2005). Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: Longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction. Biological Psychiatry, 57(10), 1117–1120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chambers, R. A., Krystal, J. H., & Self, D. W. (2001). A neurobiological basis for substance abuse comorbidity in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 71–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalmau, A., Bergman, B., & Brismar, B. (1999). Psychotic disorders among inpatients with abuse of cannabis, amphetamine and opiates. Do dopaminergic stimulants facilitate psychiatric illness? European Psychiatry, 14, 366–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis, J., Eyre, H., Jacka, F. N., Dean, O., McEven, S., Debnath, M., et al. (2016). A review of vulnerability and risks for schizophrenia: Beyond the two hit hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 65, 185–194.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. De Marchi, N., De Petrocellis, L., Orlando, P., Daniele, F., Fezza, F., & Di Marzo, V. (2003). Endocannabinoid signalling in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. Lipids in Health and Disease, 19(2), 5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Degenhardt, L., Hall, W., & Lynskey, M. (2003). Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 71(1), 37–48.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Dervaux, A., Bayle, F. J., Laqueille, X., Bourdel, M. C., Le Borgne, M. H., Olie, J. P., et al. (2001). Is substance abuse in schizophrenia related to impulsivity, sensation seeking, or anhedonia? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 492–494.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Drake, R. E., & Mueser, K. T. (2000). Psychosocial approaches to dual diagnosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 105–118.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Drake, R. E., Mueser, K. T., Brunette, M. F., & McHugo, G. J. (2004). A review of treatments for people with severe mental illnesses and co-occurring substance use disorders. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 27, 360–374.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Drake, R. E., O’Neal, L., & Wallach, M. A. (2008). A systematic review of psychosocial research on psychosocial interventions for people with co-occurring severe mental and substance use disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 34, 123–138.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Drake, R. E., Yovetich, N. A., Bebout, R. R., Harris, M., & McHugo, G. J. (1997). Integrated treatment for dually diagnosed homeless adults. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185, 298–305.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Duke, P. J., Pantelis, C., McPhillips, M. A., & Barnes, T. R. (2001). Comorbid non-alcohol substance misuse among people with schizophrenia: Epidemiological study in central London. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 509–513.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Farrell, M., Boys, A., Bebbington, P., Brugha, T., Coid, J., Lewis, G., et al. (2002). Psychoses and drug dependence: Results of a national survey of prisoners. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 393–398.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Ferdinand, R. F., van der Ende, J., Bongers, I., Selten, J. P., Huizink, A., & Verhulst, F. C. (2005). Cannabis-psychosis pathway independent of other types of psychopathology. Schizophrenia Research, 79, 289–295.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Ferdinand, R. F., Sondeijker, F., van der Ende, J., Selten, J. P., Huizink, A., & Verhulst, F. C. (2005). Cannabis use predicts future psychotic symptoms, and vice versa. Addiction, 100, 612–618.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Fergusson, D. M., Poulton, R., Smith, P. F., & Boden, J. M. (2006). Cannabis and psychosis. BMJ, 332, 172–175.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Foglia, E., Schoeler, T., Klamerus, E., Morgan, K., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2017). Cannabis use and adherence to antipsychotic medication: A systematic review and meta-analyses. Psychological Medicine, 47(10), 1691–1705.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Gage, S. H., Hickman, M., & Zammit, S. (2016). Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence. Biological Psychiatry, 79, 549–556.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Gage, S. H., Jones, H. J., Burgess, S., Bowden, J., Davey Smith, G., Zammit, S., & Munafo, M. R. (2017). Assessing causality in associations between cannabis use and schizophrenia risk: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study. Psychological Medicine, 47, 971–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Giannakis, A., & Cordes, J. (2016). Akutbehandlung der Schizophrenie. Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date, 10, 15–27.Google Scholar
  36. Giuffrida, A., Leweke, F. M., Gerth, C. W., Schreiber, D., Koethe, D., Faulhaber, J., et al. (2004). Cerebrospinal anandamide levels are elevated in acute schizophrenia and are inversely correlated with psychotic symptoms. Neuropsychopharmacology, 29(11), 2108–2114.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E. (2007). Komorbidität Psychose und Sucht – Grundlagen und Praxis. Heidelberg: Steinkopff.Google Scholar
  38. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E., König, S., Koebke, S., Schnell, T., Schmitz-Buhl, M., & Daumann, J. (2015). Trans-sector integrated treatment in psychosis and addiction – A randomized controlled study of a motivational, cognitive behavioral therapy program under standard hospital treatment conditions. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 112(41), 683–691.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Granholm, E., Anthenelli, R., Monteiro, R., Sevcik, J., & Stoler, M. (2003). Brief integrated outpatient dual-diagnosis treatment reduces psychiatric hospitalizations. The American Journal on Addictions, 12, 306–313.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Green, A. I. (2005). Schizophrenia and comorbid substance use disorder: Effects of antipsychotics. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(Suppl. 6), 21–26.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Green, A. I., Tohen, M. F., Hamer, R. M., Strakowski, S. M., Lieberman, J. A., Glick, I., et al. (2004). First episode schizophrenia-related psychosis and substance use disorders: acute response to olanzapine and haloperidol. Schizophrenia Research, 66, 125–135.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Gregg, L., Barrowclough, C., & Haddock, G. (2007). Reasons for increased substance use in psychosis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(4), 494–510.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Gupta, S., Hendricks, S., Kenkel, A. M., Bhatia, S. C., & Haffke, E. A. (1996). Relapse in schizophrenia: Is there a relationship to substance abuse? Schizophrenia Research, 20, 153–156.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Gut-Fayand, A., Dervaux, A., Olie, J. P., Loo, H., Poirier, M. F., & Krebs, M. O. (2001). Substance abuse and suicidality in schizophrenia: A common risk factor linked to impulsivity. Psychiatry Research, 102, 65–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Hambrecht, M., & Hafner, H. (1996). Substance abuse and the onset of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 40, 1155–1163.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Hamilton, I. (2017). Cannabis, psychosis and schizophrenia: Unravelling a complex interaction. Addiction, 112(9), 1653–1657.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Hanna, R. C., Shalvoy, A., Cullum, C. M., Ivleva, E. I., Keshavan, M., Pearlson, et al. (2016). Cognitive function in individuals with psychosis: Moderation by adolescent cannabis use. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42, 1496–1503.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Haywood, T. W., Kravitz, H. M., Grossman, L. S., Cavanaugh, J., Davis, J. M., & Lewis, D. A. (1995). Predicting the „revolving door“ phenomenon among patients with schizophrenic, schizoaffective, and affective disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 856–861.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Henquet, C., Krabbendam, L., Spauwen, J., Kaplan, C., Lieb, R., Wittchen, H. U., et al. (2005). Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people. BMJ, 330, 11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hickmann, M., Vickerman, P., Macleod, J., Kirkbride, J., & Jones, P. (2007). Cannabis and schizophrenia: model projections of the impact of the rise in cannabis use on historical and future trends in schizophrenia in England and Wales. Addiction, 102, 597–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hiemstra, M., Nelemans, S. A., Branje, S., van Eijk, K. R., Hottenga, J. J., Vinkers, C. H., et al. (2018). Genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia is associated with cannabis use patterns during adolescence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 190, 143–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hosak, L. (2013). New findings in the genetics of schizophrenia. World J Psychiatry, 3, 57–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hunt, G. E., Large, M. M., Cleary, M., Lai, H. M. X., & Saunders, J. B. (2018). Prevalence of comorbid substance use in schizophrenia spectrum disorders in community and clinical settings, 1990–2017: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 191, 234–258.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Johns, A. (2001). Psychiatric effects of cannabis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 116–122.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Kensche, M., Bromand, Z., & Kienast, T. (2014). Evidenzbasierte Psychotherapie bei Patienten mit Substanzabhängigkeit und psychischer Komorbidität. PSYCHup2date, 8, 9–18.Google Scholar
  56. Khantzian, E. J. (1985). The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders: Focus on heroin and cocaine dependence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 1259–1264.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Khantzian, E. J. (1997). The self-medication hypothesis of substance use disorders: A reconsideration and recent applications. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 4, 231–244.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Kirkbride, J. B., Fearon, P., Morgan, C., et al. (2006). Heterogeneity in incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes: Findings from the 3-center AeSOP study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 250–258.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Klingenberg, S., & Bechdolf, A. (2013). Schizophrenie – psychosoziale Therapie (ICD-10 F2). In U. Voderholzer & F. Hohagen (Hrsg.), Therapie psychischer Erkrankungen. State of the art 2013/2014 (S. 113–132). Urban & Fischer: München.Google Scholar
  60. Koskinen, J., Löhönen, J., Koponen, H., Isohanni, M., & Miettunen, J. (2010). Rate of cannabis use disorders in clinical samples of patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36(6), 1115–1130.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Ksir, C., & Hart, C. L. (2016). Cannabis and psychosis: A critical overview of the relationship. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(2), 12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Linszen, D., & van Amelsvoort, T. (2007). Cannabis and psychosis: An update on course and biological plausible mechanisms. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20, 116–120.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Lubman, D. I., Cheetham, A., & Yücel, M. (2015). Cannabis and adolescent brain development. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 148, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lubman, D. I., King, J. A., & Castle, D. J. (2010). Treating comorbid substance use disorders in schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry, 22(2), 191–201.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Mallet, J., Ramoz, N., Le Strat, Y., Gorwood, P., & Dubertret, C. (2017). Heavy cannabis use prior psychosis in schizophrenia: Clinical, cognitive and neurological evidences for a new endophenotype? European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 267(7), 629–638.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Mané, A., Bergé, D., Penzol, M. J., Parellada, M., Bioque, M., Lobo, A., et al. (2017). Cannabis use, COMT, BDNF and age at first-episode psychosis. Psychiatry Research, 250, 38–43.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Mechoulam, R., & Parker, L. A. (2013). The endocannabinoid system and the brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 21–47.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Meier, M. H., Caspi, A., Ambler, A., Harrington, H., Houts, R., Keefe, R. S., et al. (2012). Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(40), 2657–2664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mollon, J., & Reichenberg, A. (2018). Cognitive development prior to onset of psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 48(3), 392–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Moulin, V., Baumann, P., Gholamrezaee, M., Alameda, L., Palix, J., Gasser, J., & Conus, P. (2018). Cannabis, a significant risk factor for violent behavior in the early phase psychosis. Two patterns of interaction of factors increase the risk of violent behavior: Cannabis use disorder and impulsivity; cannabis use disorder, lack of insight and treatment adherence. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 294.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mueser, K. T., Drake, R. E., & Wallach, M. A. (1998). Dual diagnosis: A review of etiological theories. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 717–734.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Mueser, K. T., Yarnold, P. R., & Bellack, A. S. (1992). Diagnostic and demographic correlates of substance abuse in schizophrenia and major affective disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 85, 48–55.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Mueser, K. T., Yarnold, P. R., Levinson, D. F., Singh, H., Bellack, A. S., Kee, K., et al. (1990). Prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia: Demographic and clinical correlates. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 31–56.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Mueser, K. T., Yarnold, P. R., & Rosemberg, S. D. (2000). Substance use disorder in hospitalized severely mentally ill psychiatric patients: Prevalence, correlates, and subgroups. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 179–192.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Murray, R. M., Arseneault, L., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T., Cannon, M., Boydell, J., & Thirtalli, J. (2006). Adolescent cannabis use and later psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 81(Suppl), 10–11.Google Scholar
  76. Petrakis, I. L., Nich, C., & Ralevski, E. (2006). Psychotic spectrum disorders and alcohol abuse: A review of pharmacotherapeutic strategies and a report on the effectiveness of Naltrexone and Disulfiram. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 644–654.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Petrakis, I. L., O’Malley, S., Rounsaville, B., Poling, J., Hugh-Strong, C., & Krystal, J. H. (2004). Naltrexone augmentation of neuroleptic treatment in alcohol abusing patients with schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology, 172, 291–297.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Petrakis, I. L., Poling, J., Levinson, C., Nich, C., Carroll, K., & Rounsaville, B. (2005). Naltrexone and disulfiram in patients with alcohol dependence and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1128–1137.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Poole, R., & Brabbins, C. (1996). Drug induced psychosis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 135–138.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Regier, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., Locke, B. Z., Keith, S. J., Judd, L. L., et al. (1990). Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. JAMA, 264, 2511–2518.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Ripke, S., Neale, B. M., Corvin, A., Walters, J. T. R., Farh, K., Holmans, P. A., Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, et al. (2014). Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature, 511(7510), 421–427.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sami, M. B., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2018). Are cannabis-using and non-using patients different groups? Towards understanding the neurobiology of cannabis use in psychotic disorders. Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford), 32(8), 825–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sami, M., Notley, C., Kouimtsidis, C., Lynskey, M., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2019). Psychotic-like experiences with cannabis use predict cannabis cessation and desire to quit: A cannabis discontinuationhypothesis. Psychological Medicine, 49(1), 103–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Scharfetter, C. (2010). Allgemeine psychopathologie. Stuttgart: Thieme.Google Scholar
  85. Schneier, F. R., & Siris, S. G. (1987). A review of psychoactive substance use and abuse in schizophrenia. Patterns of drug choice. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 641–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schnell, T. (2013). Klinische Prognose schizophrener Patienten mit Cannabisabhängigkeit zwischen Nihilismus und Hoffnung. Nervenarzt, 85(9), 1084–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schnell, T. (2017). Aufrechterhaltende Dynamik und klinische Prognose komorbider Schizophrenie und Cannabisabhängigkeit. Habilitationsschrift, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Institut für Psychologie.Google Scholar
  88. Schnell, T., & Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E. (2010). Therapie suchtkranker Schizophrener. Suchtmed, 12(5), 1–10.Google Scholar
  89. Schnell, T., Neisius, K., Daumann, J., & Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E. (2010). Prevalence of psychosis/substance use comorbidity. Clinical-epidemiological findings from different treatment-settings in a large German city. Nervenarzt, 81(3), 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schnell, T., Kleinmann, A., Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E., Wagner, D., Daumann, J., & Becker, B. (2012). Increased grey matter density in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use. A voxel-based morphometric study using DARTEL. Schizophrenia Research, 138(2-3), 183–187.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Schnell, T., von Katte, S., & Gast, U. (2015). Bereitschaft niedergelassener Therapeuten zur Behandlung von Patienten mit komplexen posttraumatischen und dissoziativen Störungen. Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie, 83, 1–6.Google Scholar
  92. Schoeler, T., Monk, A., Sami, M. B., Klamerus, E., Foglia, E., Brown, R., et al. (2016). Continued versus discontinued cannabis use in patients with psychosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3, 215–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schofield, D., Tennant, C., Nash, L., Degenhardt, L., Cornish, A., Hobbs, C., et al. (2006). Reasons for cannabis use in psychosis. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 570–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sekar, A., Bialas, A. R., de Rivera, H., Davis, A., Hammond, T. R., Kamitaki, N., et al. (2016). Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4. Nature, 530(7589), 177–183.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stefanis, N. C., Dragovic, M., Power, B. D., Jablensky, A., Castle, D., & Morgan, V. A. (2013). Age at initiation of cannabis use predicts age at onset of psychosis: The 7- to 8-year trend. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 39(2), 251–254.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Swofford, C. D., Kasckow, J. W., Scheller-Gilkey, G., & Inderbitzin, L. B. (1996). Substance use: A powerful predictor of relapse in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 20, 145–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Van Os, J., Bak, M., Hanssen, M., Bijl, R. V., De Graaf, R., & Verdoux, H. (2002). Cannabis use and psychosis: A longitudinal population-based study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156, 319–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vauth, R. (2012). Psychotherapie der Schizophrenie. Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie up2date, 6, 345–360.Google Scholar
  99. Veen, N. D., Selten, J. P., Feller, W. G., Hoek, H. W., & Kahn, R. S. (2004). Cannabis use and age at onset of schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 501–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Verweij, K. J. H., Abdellaoui, A., Nivard, M. G., Cort, A. S., Ligthart, L., Draisma, H. H. M., et al. (2017). Short communication: Genetic association between schizophrenia and cannabis use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 171, 117–121.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weiser, M., & Noy, S. (2005). Interpreting the association between cannabis use and increased risk for schizophrenia. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 7(1), 81–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Wobrock, T., & Soyka, M. (2008). Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia with comorbid substance use disorder – Reviewing the evidence and clinical recommendations. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 32(6), 1375–1385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yücel, M., Solowij, N., & Respondek, C. (2008). Regional brain abnormalities associated with long-term heavy cannabis use. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(6), 694–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zammit, S., Allebeck, P., Andreasson, S., Lundberg, I., & Lewis, G. (2002). Self-reported cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia in Swedish conscripts of 1969: Historical cohort study. BMJ, 325, 1199.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zimmet, S. V., Strous, R. D., Burgess, E. S., Kohnstamm, S., & Green, A. I. (2000). Effects of Clozapine on substance use in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: A retrospective survey. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 20, 94–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fakultät GesundheitMedical School HamburgHamburgDeutschland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank
    • 1
  • Thomas Schnell
    • 2
  1. 1.LVR-Klinik KölnKölnDeutschland
  2. 2.Fakultät GesundheitMedical School HamburgHamburgDeutschland

Personalised recommendations