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Alloplastische Materialien und Stents in der Gefäßmedizin

  • Nabil Chakfé
  • Eike Sebastian DebusEmail author
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

Part of the Springer Reference Medizin book series (SRM)

Zusammenfassung

Die Anwendung von synthetischen Materialien in der Gefäßchirurgie reicht bis in die späten 1940er-Jahre zurück. Polyethylenterephthalat (PET) ist eines der ältesten Materialien, wurde erfolgreich als eine prothetische Gefäßprothese angewendet und wurde in den 1970er Jahren durch die Einführung von expandiertem Polytetrafluorethylen (ePTFE) abgelöst. Seit der Veröffentlichung von dessen Anwendung beim Menschen durch Crawford und DeBakey 1958 (Crawford et al. 1958) wurden synthetische Prothesen in der Gefäßchirurgie ubiquitär angewendet. Das Stenting von Arterien gewann in den 1980er Jahren und 1990er Jahren an Popularität, und die Entwicklung von endovaskulären Behandlungen von okklusiven und aneurysmatischen Gefäßerkrankungen bedeutete eine enorme Veränderung auf diesem Gebiet. In den letzten 20 Jahren gab es beträchtliche Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet vaskulärer Grafts, einschließlich der Entwicklung von aortalen und peripheren Endografts, welche die Technologien von Grafts und Stents kombinieren. Neben den großen Vorteilen der bei vaskulären Prothesen angewendeten Materialien ist andererseits das Versagen dieser Materialien nicht selten, und ein beträchtlicher Forschungsanteil fokussiert sich auf die Untersuchungen der Versagensmechanismen verschiedener vaskulärer prothetischer Materialien. Während der autologe Venengraft der Goldstandard für den Gefäßersatz bleibt, sind synthetische und non-autogene biologische Grafts ein essenzieller Teil des Armamentariums des modernen Gefäßchirurgen. In diesem Kapitel werden sowohl die in der vaskulären als auch in der endovaskulären Chirurgie angewendeten Materialien, einschließlich Grafts, Stents und Stentgrafts, mit dem Fokus auf ihre Herstellung, Struktur und häufige Versagensmechanismen dargestellt.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Vascular SurgeryUniversity Hospital of StrasbourgStrasbourgFrankreich
  2. 2.Klinik und Poliklinik für GefäßmedizinUniversitäres Herz- und Gefäßzentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgDeutschland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Eike Sebastian Debus
    • 1
  1. 1.Klinik und Poliklinik für GefäßmedizinUniversitäres Herzzentrum Hamburg, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgDeutschland

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