Encyclopedia of Parasitology

2016 Edition
| Editors: Heinz Mehlhorn

Syngamus Species

  • Heinz MehlhornEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43978-4_3902


Greek – syn = together, gamos = fusion. Latin – trachea = trachea, breathing tube. English – grape worm.

Geographic Distribution/Epidemiology

Worldwide in many bird and mammal species; in cases of farmed birds, often high prevalence rates have been observed.

Morphology/Life Cycle

Two species of the genus Syngamus are common and most important:
  1. (a)

    Syngamus trachea (Fig. 1). The adults of this so-called red tracheal worm measure 8 mm (males) in length and 20 mm (females), respectively, which live in permanent copulation attached at the tracheal wall, thus offering a Y-shaped aspect. Both sexes suck constantly blood at different places and thus appear reddish in shape. The females excrete the thick-walled 70–100 μm × 45–50 μm-sized eggs in an unembryonated stage (containing a morula of about 16 cells). The egg shell is characterized by thickenings at both poles (Fig. 1). The larva 3 is formed inside the egg shell within 1–2 weeks. If snails, earthworms, insects, or their larvae...

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Further Readings

  1. Holand H et al (2013) Temporal and spatial variation in prevalence of the parasite Syngamus trachea. Parasitology 140:1275–1286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Krone O et al (2007) Specific status and pathogenicity of syngamid nematodes in bird species. J Helminthol 81:67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für ZoomorphologieZellbiologie und Parasitologie, Heinrich-Heine-UniversitätDüsseldorfGermany