Symbionts in Tsetse Flies
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There are two members of the enterobacterian type found in the gut. The obligate mutualist Wigglesworthia and the faculcative secondary (= S =) symbiont Sodalis. A third type is the parasite microbe Wolbachia pipientis which is related to the λ-proteobacteria. The gut microbes are transmitted to the progeny of the flies via the mother's “milk glands”, while the Wolbachia-stages are included into the eggs.