Family of Insects.
Fossil phlebotomines are about 120 million years old. Of the about 700 phlebotomine sand fly species, only about 70 are anthropophagous, mainly belonging to the two genera, Lutzomyia (New World) and Phlebotomus (Old World). Only female flies suck blood, but also – like males – they suck plant sugars, e.g., aphid honeydew, nectaries, or fruits. Phlebotomines transmit viral and bacterial diseases but are mainly known as vectors of Leishmania.
Phlebotomines are holometabolous insects’ larvae developing in the soil. Adults are small, hairy Diptera, holding their pointed wings erect in a characteristic manner above their bodies – like a vertical V.