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Schmerzchronifizierung

  • Rolf-Detlef Treede
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

Part of the Springer Reference Medizin book series (SRM)

Zusammenfassung

Der Schmerzsinn ist für das Überleben des Organismus essenziell, weil er vor drohenden Schäden durch äußere Ereignisse oder innere Erkrankungen warnt. Für diese Funktion besitzen wir einen hoch spezialisierten Teil des Nervensystems, das nozizeptive System. Nach einer Gewebeschädigung ist die Empfindlichkeit des nozizeptiven Systems durch periphere und zentrale Sensibilisierung gesteigert. Hieraus resultieren Hyperalgesie und Allodynie, die den Heilungsprozess normalerweise nur um einige Stunden überdauern. Diese relativ kurz dauernde Modulation des nozizeptiven Systems kann in eine lang dauernde Modifikation mit veränderter Genexpression übergehen, für die oft auch der Begriff „Schmerzgedächtnis“ verwendet wird. Dieser Begriff kann aber auch andere klinisch relevante Prozesse beschreiben, wie das episodische Schmerzgedächtnis (bewusstes Erinnern selbst erlebter Schmerzen) oder assoziatives Gedächtnis in Form von klassischer oder operanter Konditionierung (auch zur Behandlung chronischer Schmerzen eingesetzt).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Neurophysiologie, CBTMMedizinische Fakultät Mannheim der Universität HeidelbergMannheimDeutschland

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