Advertisement

Mobile AR Trails and Games for Authentic Language Learning

  • Mark Pegrum
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Today’s proliferation of mobile, and especially smart, devices opens up new educational opportunities. This chapter explores the benefits of pedagogically rich mobile learning (m-learning) designs where the devices, the learners, and the learning experience are all mobile; where the constructs of personalization, collaboration, and authenticity are all foregrounded; and where weak interaction is complemented by strong interaction. Many of the best examples of such designs can be found in mobile augmented reality (AR) learning trails and games.

The chapter showcases language and literacy learning on gamified AR learning trails, some of which have a mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) focus, and some of which have a more general learning focus, but all of which incorporate elements of language and literacy education. Following a brief overview of significant examples from around the world, the chapter focuses on recent trails in Asia, including the Singaporean Heritage Trails, the Hong Kong TIEs (Trails of Integrity and Ethics), the Indonesian Mega Trails, and the Japanese Fukuchiyama Castle Rally. On such trails, students typically learn collaboratively in real-world settings while practicing language, developing digital literacies and twenty-first-century skills, and often exploring culture at the same time. The chapter outlines how these gamified trails are structured to enable students to draw the greatest learning benefits from digitally supported, authentic, situated interactions. It is suggested that successful mobile AR learning designs depend fundamentally on a willingness to view mobile devices not as screens which separate people from the world, but as lenses which connect people with the world and which focus attention on new ways of implementing teaching and learning experiences outside the regular spaces and times of education.

Keywords

Mobile Augmented reality (AR) Learning trails Games Authenticity 

References

  1. Antonaci, Alessandra, Roland Klemke, and Marcus Specht. 2015. Towards design patterns for augmented reality serious games. In The mobile learning voyage – From small ripples to massive open waters. 14th world conference on mobile and contextual learning, mLearn 2015, Venice, Italy, October 17–24, 2015, proceedings, ed. Tom H. Brown and Herman J. van der Merwe, 273–282. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Bacca, Jorge, Silvia Baldiris, Ramon Fabregat, Sabine Graf, and Kinshuk. 2014. Augmented reality trends in education: A systematic review of research and applications. Educational Technology & Society 17 (4): 133–149.Google Scholar
  3. Burden, Kevin John, and Matthew Kearney. 2017. Investigating and critiquing teacher educators’ mobile learning practices. Interactive Technology and Smart Education 14 (2): 110–125.  https://doi.org/10.1108/ITSE-05-2017-0027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan, Joey, Rex Chiu, Grace Ng, and Theresa Kwong. 2015. How clickstream tracking helps design mobile learning content. International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education 2 (7): 95–104.Google Scholar
  5. Chow, Eric H.C., Mark Pegrum, Dimple R. Thadani, and Eva Y.W. Wong. 2015. Mobile technologies and augmented reality: Early experiences in helping students learn about academic integrity and ethics. International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education 2 (7): 112–120.Google Scholar
  6. Clandfield, Lindsay, and Jill Hadfield. 2017. Interaction online: Creative activities for blended learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Comas-Quinn, Anna, Raquel Mardomingo, and Chris Valentine. 2009. Mobile blogs in language learning: Making the most of informal and situated learning opportunities. ReCALL 21 (1): 96–112.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344009000032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Comber, Barbara. 2016. Literacy, place, and pedagogies of possibility. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Conlan, Meg. 2016. 3 ways Pokémon GO can create meaningful learning opportunities. EdTech. http://www.edtechmagazine.com/k12/article/2016/07/3-ways-pok-mon-go-can-create-meaningful-learning-opportunities. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  10. Cook, John. 2010. Mobile learner generated contexts: Research on the internalization of the world of cultural products. In Medienbildung in neuen Kulturräumen: Die deutschsprachige und britische Diskussion, ed. Ben Bachmair, 113–125. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Demarest, Amy B. 2015. Place-based curriculum design: Exceeding standards through local investigations. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Dunleavy, Matt. 2014. Design principles for augmented reality learning. TechTrends 58 (1): 28–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dunleavy, Matt, and Chris Dede. 2014. Augmented reality teaching and learning. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, ed. J. Michael Spector, M. David Merrill, Jan Elen, and M.J. Bishop, 4th ed., 735–745. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. FitzGerald, Elizabeth, Anne Adams, Rebecca Ferguson, Mark Gaved, Yishay Mor, and Rhodri Thomas. 2012. Augmented reality and mobile learning: The state of the art. In mLearn 2012: Mobile and contextual learning. Proceedings of the 11th international conference on mobile and contextual learning 2012, Helsinki, Finland, October 16–18, 2012, eds. Marcus Specht, Mike Sharples, and Jari Multisilta, 62–69. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-955/papers/paper_49.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  15. Gee, James Paul. 2013. The anti-education era: Creating smarter students through digital learning. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Gee, James Paul. 2015. Literacy and education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Gorman, Nicole. 2016. How Pokémon GO is the perfect tool for encouraging summer learning. Education World. http://www.educationworld.com/a_news/how-pokemon-go-perfect-tool-encouraging-summer-learning-1687680210. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  18. Hawkinson, Eric. 2017. Massive mixed reality community engagement. Medium. https://medium.com/ready-teacher-one/massive-mixed-reality-community-engagement-65ea60eb2c3c. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  19. Hawkinson, Eric, Parisa Mehran, and Mehrasa Alizadeh. 2017. Using MAVR to bring new dimensions to the classroom. The Language Teacher 41 (3): 30–32. http://www.jalt-publications.org/files/pdf-article/41.3tlt-wired.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.Google Scholar
  20. Holden, Chris, and Julie Sykes. 2011. Mentira: Prototyping language-based locative gameplay. In Mobile media learning: Amazing uses of mobile devices for learning, ed. Seann Dikkers, John Martin, and Bob Coulter. Pittsburgh: ETC Press.Google Scholar
  21. Huang, Chester S.J., Stephen J.H. Yang, Tosti H.C. Chiang, and Y.S. Su Addison. 2016. Effects of situated mobile learning approach on learning motivation and performance of EFL students. Educational Technology & Society 19 (1): 263–276.Google Scholar
  22. Isaac, Mike. 2017. Mark Zuckerberg sees augmented reality ecosystem in Facebook. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/18/technology/mark-zuckerberg-sees-augmented-reality-ecosystem-in-facebook.html. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  23. Johnson, L., S. Adams Becker, M. Cummins, V. Estrada, A. Freeman, and C. Hall. 2016. NMC horizon report: 2016 Higher education edition. Austin: New Media Consortium. http://cdn.nmc.org/media/2016-nmc-horizon-report-he-EN.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.Google Scholar
  24. Kastrenakes, Jacob. 2016. Tim Cook says augmented reality will be bigger than virtual reality. The Verge. https://www.theverge.com/2016/9/14/12913770/tim-cook-augmented-virtual-reality-apple-comments. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  25. Kearney, Matthew, Sandra Schuck, Kevin Burden, and Peter Aubusson. 2012. Viewing mobile learning from a pedagogical perspective. Research in Learning Technology 20: 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.3402/rlt.v20i0.14406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kinshuk. 2015. Roadmap for adaptive and personalized learning in ubiquitous environments. In Ubiquitous learning environments and technologies, ed. Kinshuk and Ronghuai Huang, 1–13. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Klopfer, Eric, and Kurt Squire. 2008. Environmental detectives – The development of an augmented reality platform for environmental simulations. Educational Technology Research and Development 56: 203–228.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-007-9037-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes, Mark Gaved, Lucas Paletta, Eileen Scanlon, Ann Jones, and Andrew Brasher. 2015. Mobile incidental learning to support the inclusion of recent immigrants. Ubiquitous Learning 7 (2): 9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes, and Mark Pegrum. 2018. Linguistic diversity in online and mobile learning. In The Routledge handbook of language and superdiversity, ed. Angela Creese and Adrian Blackledge. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Lave, Jean, and Etienne Wenger. 1991. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee, Hyunjeong, David Parsons, Gyuhyun Kwon, Jieun Kim, Krassie Petrova, Eunju Jeong, and Hokyoung Ryu. 2016. Cooperation begins: Encouraging critical thinking skills through cooperative reciprocity using a mobile learning game. Computers & Education 97: 97–115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.03.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Livingstone, D.W. 2001. Adults’ informal learning: Definitions, findings, gaps and future research. NALL working paper # 21–2001. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED452390.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  33. Mehran, Parisa, and Mehrasa Alizadeh. 2017. Fukuchiyama AR Rally 2017: Vocab quiz. Diary of a technophile. https://parisamehran.wordpress.com/2017/04/16/fukuchiyama-ar-rally-2017-vocab-quiz/. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  34. NCTE (National Council of Teachers of English) [USA]. 2013. The NCTE definition of 21st century literacies. Position statement. [Adopted 15 February 2008; updated February 2013.] http://www.ncte.org/positions/statements/21stcentdefinition. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  35. P21 (Partnership for 21st Century Learning) [USA]. n.d. Framework for 21st century learning. P21. http://www.p21.org/our-work/p21-framework. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  36. Pegrum, Mark. 2014. Mobile learning: Languages, literacies and cultures. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pegrum, Mark. 2016. Three agendas for MALL. In The international handbook of mobile-assisted language learning, ed. Agnieszka Palalas and Mohamed Ally, 86–112. Beijing: China Central Radio and TV University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Potter, Grant. 2011. Augmented reality and mobile technologies. In Models for interdisciplinary mobile learning: Delivering information to students, ed. Andrew Kitchenham, 212–230. Hershey: Information Science Reference.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Qian, Meihua, and Karen R. Clark. 2016. Game-based learning and 21st century skills: A review of recent research. Computers in Human Behavior 63: 50–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.05.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Radu, Iulian. 2014. Augmented reality in education: A meta-review and cross-media analysis. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 18: 1533–1543.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-013-0747-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Read, Timothy, Elena Bárcena, and Agnes Kukulska-Hulme. 2016. Mobile and massive language learning. In Technology-enhanced language learning for specialized domains: Practical applications and mobility, ed. Elena Martín-Monje, Izaskun Elorza, and Blanca García Riaza, 151–161. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Schmitz, Birgit, Roland Klemke, and Marcus Specht. 2012. An analysis of the educational potential of augmented reality games for learning. In mLearn 2012: Mobile and contextual learning. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning 2012, Helsinki, Finland, October 16–18, 2012, eds. Marcus Specht, Mike Sharples, and Jari Multisilta, 140–147. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-955/papers/paper_33.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  43. Scoble, Robert, and Shel Israel. 2017. The fourth transformation: How augmented reality and artificial intelligence change everything. Patrick Brewster Press.Google Scholar
  44. Sharples, Mike, Anne Adams, Nonye Alozie, Rebecca Ferguson, Elizabeth FitzGerald, Mark Gaved, Patrick McAndrew, et al. 2015. Innovating pedagogy 2015: Exploring new forms of teaching, learning and assessment, to guide educators and policy makers. Open University Innovation Report 4. Milton Keynes: The Open University. http://proxima.iet.open.ac.uk/public/innovating_pedagogy_2015.pdf. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  45. Sourmelis, Theodoros, Andri Ioannou, and Panayiotis Zaphiris. 2017. Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) and the 21st century skills: A comprehensive research review from 2010 to 2016. Computers in Human Behavior 67: 41–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.10.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Traxler, John, and Agnes Kukulska-Hulme. 2016a. Introduction to the next generation of mobile learning. In Mobile learning: The next generation, ed. John Traxler and Agnes Kukulska-Hulme. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Traxler, John, and Agnes Kukulska-Hulme. 2016b. Conclusion: Contextual challenges for the next generation. In Mobile learning: The next generation, ed. John Traxler and Agnes Kukulska-Hulme. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Vygotsky, L.S. 1978. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Wong, Eva Y.W., Theresa F.N. Kwong, Siu Yin Cheung, Grace M.S. Ng, Rex W.P. Chiu, and Erica Y.Q. Zhong. 2016. Augmented reality mobile learning trails to develop students’ academic integrity. In E-learning excellence awards: An anthology of case histories 2016, ed. Dan Remenyi, 217–232. Reading: Academic Conferences and Publishing International.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Graduate School of EducationThe University of Western AustraliaCrawley, PerthAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Yanguo Jing
    • 1
  1. 1.Coventry UniversityCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations