Encyclopedia of Robotics

Living Edition
| Editors: Marcelo H. Ang, Oussama Khatib, Bruno Siciliano

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Integration at Very Low Level

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41610-1_82-1


  • VLL or Very Low Level: airspace below 500 ft. over ground.

  • UTM: Unmanned Traffic Management.

  • U-space: services and procedures that will allow the safe integration of drones or UAS into the airspace, in a first stage below 500 ft.


In the last 5 years the drone market has increased exponentially, especially in the hobby sector where millions of drones have been sold worldwide. Regarding the professional sector, the potential is also very high with an increasing number of registered operators (for example, in France there are currently more than 3,000 registered operators and more than 2,000 in Spain). In fact, only for Europe, the potential drone market is expected to be 10 billion euros annually by 2035 and over 15 billion euros by 2050 (SESAR JU 2016). The impact of developing drones for civil missions at Very Low Level, VLL (flying altitude lower than 150 m over the ground), is expected to generate most of this potential market.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Center for Aerospace Technologies (CATEC)La Rinconada (Seville)Spain

Section editors and affiliations

  • Aníbal Ollero
    • 1
  1. 1.GRVC Robotics Labs. SevillaEscuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de SevillaSevillaSpain