Hydrological Cycles, Models, and Applications to Forecasting

  • Sharad K. JainEmail author
  • Vijay P. Singh
Reference work entry


This chapter presents an overview of hydrology, water cycle, land surface processes (e.g., precipitation, snow, glaciers and frozen soils, evapotranspiration, surface and subsurface runoff, overland and river flow routing), and hydrologic modeling and its history. The chapter is concluded with an outlook for future.


Hydrologic cycle Watershed Catchment Models Precipitation Evapotranspiration Surface water Ground Water Climate change Black-box Conceptual Distributed Calibration Validation Uncertainty Data Remote sensing GIS 


  1. M.B. Abbott, J.C. Bathurst, J.A. Cunge, P.E. O'Connell, J. Rasmussen, An introduction to the European hydrological system – system Hydrologique European “SHE”. History and philosophy of physically based distributed modelling system. J. Hydrol. 87, 45–59 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. R.G. Allen, L.S. Pereira, D. Raes, M. Smith, Crop Evapotranspiration, Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (1998)Google Scholar
  3. ASCE, Handbook of hydrology, ASCE Manual and Reports on Engrg. Pract. No. 28 (New York, 1996)Google Scholar
  4. J.C. Bathurst, J.M. Wicks, P.E. O’Connell, The SHE/SHESED basin scale water flow and sediment transport modeling system, Chapter 16, in Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology, ed. by V.P. Singh (Water Resources Publications, Littleton, 1995), pp. 563–594Google Scholar
  5. S. Bergstrom, Development and application of a conceptual runoff model for Scandinavian countries. SMHI Reports, No. 7, Norrkoping (1976)Google Scholar
  6. R.P. Betson, Water is watershed runoff? J. Geophys. Res. 69(8), 1541–1552 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. K. Beven, Rainfall-Runoff Modelling – The Primer (Wiley, Chichester, 2001)Google Scholar
  8. K. Beven, J. Freer, Equifinality, data assimilation, and uncertainty estimation in mechanistic estimation of complex environmental systems using the GLUE methodology. J. Hydrol. 249, 11–29 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. K.J. Beven, M.J. Kirkby, A physically-based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology. Hydrol. Sci. Bull. 24(1), 43–69 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. R.J.C. Burnash, R.L. Ferral, R.A. McGuire, A generalized streamflow simulation system-conceptual modeling for digital computers. Rep., U. S. Dept. Commerce, National Weather Service and State of California, Department of Water Resource (March, 1973)Google Scholar
  11. J. Chen, H. Shi, B. Sivakumar, M.R. Peart, Population, water, food, energy and dams. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 56, 18–28 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. N.H. Crawford, R.K. Linsley, Digital simulation in hydrology: Stanford Watershed Model IV. Tech. Rep. No. 39 (Stanford University, Palo Alto, 1966)Google Scholar
  13. D.R. Dawdy, T. O’Donnell, Mathematical models of catchment behavior. J. Hydraul. Div. ASCE 91(HY4), 123–127 (1965)Google Scholar
  14. J.C.I. Dooge, A general theory of the unit hydrograph. J. Geophys. Res. 64(2), 241–256 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. O. Duan, V.K. Gupta, S. Sorooshian, Effective and efficient global optimization for conceptual rainfall-runoff models. Water Resourc. Res. 28(4), 1015–1031 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. T. Dunn, L.B. Leopold, Water in Environmental Planning (W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 1978), p. 818Google Scholar
  17. E.T. Engman, R.J. Gurney, Remote Sensing in Hydrology (Chapman and Hall, London, 1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. H. Gao, et al., Water budget record from Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Terrestrial Water Cycle Data Records (2010)Google Scholar
  19. Horton, R.E. (1931). The Field, Scope, and Status of the Science of Hydrology. Pp 189–202. in Trans. AGU, Reports and Papers, Hydrology. National Research Council, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. S.K. Jain, B. Storm, J.C. Bathurst, J.C. Refsgaard, R.D. Singh, Application of the SHE to catchments in India – Part 2: Field experiments and simulation studies with the SHE on the Kolar subcatchment of the Narmada river. J. Hydrol. 140, 25–47 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. X. Liang, D.P. Lettenmaier, E.F. Wood, S.J. Burges, A simple hydrologically based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res. 99(D7), 14415–14428 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. A. Montanari, What do we mean by ‘uncertainty’? The need for a consistent wording about uncertainty assessment in hydrology. Hydrol. Process. 21, 841–845 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. J.E. Nash, The form of the instantaneous unit hydrograph. Hydrol. Sci. Bull. 3, 114–121 (1957)Google Scholar
  24. S.L. Neitsch, J.G. Arnold, J.R. Kiniry, R. Srinivasan, J.R. Williams, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, User Manual, Version 2000 (Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple, 2002)Google Scholar
  25. NRC, Scientific Basis of Water Resource Management (National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington D.C, 1982)Google Scholar
  26. NRC, Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences, in Committee on ‘Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences’ of National Research Council (National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1991)Google Scholar
  27. T. Oki, S. Kanae, Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. Science 313(5790), 1068–1072 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. D.M. Rockwood, Theory and practice of the SSARR model as related to analyzing and forecasting the response of hydrologic systems, in Applied Modeling in Catchment Hydrology, ed. by V.P. Singh (Water Resources Publications, Littleton, 1982), pp. 87–106Google Scholar
  29. L.K. Sherman, Stream flow from rainfall by the unit graph method. Engrg. News Record. 108, 501–505 (1932)Google Scholar
  30. I.A. Shiklomanov, World Water Resources: Modern Assessment and Outlook for the 21st Century. (Prepared in the Framework of IHP, UNESCO) (State Hydrology Institute, St. Petersburg, 1999)Google Scholar
  31. V.P. Singh, Elementary Hydrology (Prentice Hall, Engelwood Cliffs, 1992)Google Scholar
  32. V.P. Singh, Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology (Water Resources Publications, Littleton, 1995)Google Scholar
  33. V.P. Singh, Kinematic Wave Modeling in Water Resources: Surface-Water Hydrology (Wiley, New York, 1996), p. 1399Google Scholar
  34. V.P. Singh, Kinematic Wave Modeling in Water Resources: Environmental Hydrology (Wiley, New York, 1997), p. 830Google Scholar
  35. V.P. Singh, D.K. Frevert, Mathematical Models of Small Watershed Hydrology and Applications (Water Resources Publications, Littleton, 2002a), p. 950Google Scholar
  36. V.P. Singh, D.K. Frevert, Watershed Models (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2002b), p. 653Google Scholar
  37. V.P. Singh, D.K. Frevert, Mathematical Models of Large Watershed Hydrology (Water Resources Publications, Littleton, 2002c), p. 891Google Scholar
  38. V.P. Singh, D.A. Woolhiser, Mathematical modeling of watershed hydrology. J. Hydrol. Eng. ASCE 7(4), 270–292 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. V.P. Singh, D.K. Frevert, Watershed Models (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2006)Google Scholar
  40. S. Sorooshian, V.K. Gupta, Model calibration. Chapter 2, in Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology, ed. by V.P. Singh (Water Resources Publications, Littleton, 1995), pp. 23–68Google Scholar
  41. M. Sugawara, The flood forecasting by a series storage type model. Internatl Symposium Floods and their Computation, pp. 1–6, Leningrad, U.S.S.R., 1967Google Scholar
  42. M. Sugawara, et al., Tank model and its application to Bird Creek, Wollombi Brook, Bikin River, Kitsu River, Sanga River and Nam Mune. Research Note of the National Res. Center for Disaster Prevention, No. 11, (1974), pp. 1–64Google Scholar
  43. C.V. Theis, The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface and the rate and duration of discharge of a well using ground-water storage: American Geophysical Union Transactions, 16th Annual Meeting, vol. 16, pt. 2 (1935), p. 519–524Google Scholar
  44. E. Todini, The ARNO rainfall-runoff model. J. Hydrol. 175, 339–382 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. E. Todini, Hydrological catchment modelling: past, present and future. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11, 468–482 (2007). Scholar
  46. E.F. Wood et al., A land-surface hydrology parameterization with subgrid variability for general-circulation models. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 97(D3), 2717–2728 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. R.A. Wurbs, Dissemination of generalized water resources models in the United States. Water Int. 23, 190–198 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. R.J. Zhao, Y.-L. Zhuang, L.R. Fang, X.R. Liu, Q.S. Zhang, The Xinanjiang model. Proceedings, Oxford Symposium on Hydrological Forecasting, IASH Pub. No. 129 (1980), pp. 351–356Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jal Vigyan BhawanNational Institute of HydrologyRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Zachry Department of Civil EngineeringTexas A and M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations